The Palmetto

Palmetto Articles

Listed Alphabetically by Title

Articles that can be downloaded are preceded by an Adobe pdf sysmbol

   Editor.   1992.   1992 Twelfth Annual Conference Highlights and Quotes.   Palmetto 12 (2): 6-7.

Keywords:  Conference

   FNPS Landscape Committee.   1996.   1996 Design with Natives Landscape Awards Program.   Palmetto 16 (3): 6-9.

The 1996 annual FNPS's landscape awards program announced the nine winners in its Fall edition. The awards chair explains the programs rational, introduces the judges, explains the criteria for the judges' decisions and gives a brief overview of the winners. Following this explanation, the article identifies each winner, the award won, and describes the goal of the landscape designer or purpose for the landscape project. The explanation often identifies the native ecosystem(s) or native plants used and other related details pertinent to the award given. Awards were given to the following: The Florida Aquarium (Tampa), the McKay Bay Park Upland (Tampa), Keating-Worthington Residence, Fernandes Residence Wildlife Habitat, Madgalene Reserve (Hillsborough County), Kash 'n' Karry (Auburndale), the Cattlemen Road Complex (Sarasota), US 41 Median Landscape, and the Kenwords Learning Center (Dade County).  

   Hopper, Rob.   2000.   2000 Design with Natives Landscape Awards Winners.   Palmetto 20 (3): 2, 5-8.

Winners of the 2000 Design with Natives Awards including 1st Place School Yard: Palm Harbor Elementary; 1st Place, Non-Professional Residential Design, Fred Mullholland; 1st Place Upland restoration, Sandy Ridge Sanctuary, Coral Ridge; 2nd Place Mitigation, Marion Restoration Project; 2nd Place Non-Professional Residential, Don Kenzior; 3rd Place Non-Professional Residential, Paul G. Lowrey; 1st Place Professional Residential, Elizabeth Gillick, Landscape Architect; 1st Place Institutional, Phillipe Park, Pinellas County Parks; 2nd Place Institutional, Gillespie Museum, Stetson University; 3rd Place Institutional, Silver River State Park, Art Carlton, Park Ranger; 1st Place Commercial Professional Design; Morningside Inc., William Bissett, Landscape Architect; 1st Place Non-Professional Design, Beginner's World Butterfly Garden, Donna Glaynn-Smyth; 1st Place Wetland Restoration, Pond Apple Slough, Palm Beach County Environmental Resources Management; 2nd Place Wetland Restoration, Jupiter Inlet Natural Area Enhancement, Palm Beach County Environmental Resources Management; 2nd Place Upland Restoration Andrew Dodge New Pines Preserve, Forest Resource Program, Miami Dade County; 2nd Place School Yard, Kenwood Elementary School Annex, Henry Block, Miami-Dade County Public Schools;  Keywords:  landscape awards, native landscaping, gardening, butterfly garden.

Editor.   2004.   2003 Landscape Awards.   Palmetto 22 (3): 13.

   FNPS Landscape Committee.   2008.   2008 Landscape Awards: Design with Natives.   Palmetto 25 (3): 4-9.

The FNPS's 2008 Design with Natives Landscape Awards were presented in the 2008 Summer issue of the Palmetto. The presentation identified each award category, the landscape condition prior to the redesign, the goal/purpose for the new landscape efforts, the native plants installed and other details of significance. The award recipiants include the following: the entry landscape to RiverCamps at Crooked Creek (Bay County), the Native Plant Display Garden at Mounts Botanical Garden (West Palm Beach), Pan's Garden (Palm Beach), Possum Branch Preserve (Safety Harbor), the Pasco County Gateway Project, Downtown Tallahassee Wildflower Garden, the Elizabeth and Thomas Flynn Residence (Ormond Beach), Doris Bareiss' Florida Yard Transformation (New Port Richey), and Anamary Brooks' Rockland Project (Miami-Dade County). In addition to the projects, the article includes a list of print and on-line resources for native landscaping

   Editor.   2008.   2008 Palmetto Awards.   Palmetto 25 (3): 12-14.

The 2008 Palmetto Summer edition awards includes a listing of the individual recipients of the Green Palmetto Awards honored for their outstanding work in the areas of service, education, and science or technology; the Chapter for its contribution to FNPS's mission; and recipients of the Silver Palmetto Awards honored for their significant contribution to the functioning of FNPS. Green Palmetto Awards given to Ron Plakke, Ph.D., Cynthia Plockelman, Erick Smith, Carmel Van Hock and the Tarflower Chapter of FNPS. Silver Palmetto Awards honored Bob Egolf, Cindy Liberton, and Kim Zarillo. Keywords: Palmetto Awards, 2008 award recipients, Green Palmetto, Silver Palmetto

   FNPS Conservation Committee.   2009.   2009 Conservation Grants Awarded.   Palmetto 26 (3): 2.

Reports $2500 conservation grants: the first restore an Ormond Beach Maritime Hammock and the second to establish an Experimental Hammock Community in South Florida. Keywords: conservation grants, Ormond Beach, Maritime Hammock, restoration, conservation

   FNPS Science Advisory Committee.   2009.   2009 Endowment Research Grants.   Palmetto 26 (3): 11.

FNPS awarded 4 Research Endowment Grants of 20 applicants in 2009 to the following individuals for their research of Florida native species. Nicholas Buckley for research about the mating system biology of Illicium parviflorum; James M. Heaney for research about the systematics, biogeography, and conservation genetics of Nolina brittoniana and N. atopocarpa (Ruscaceae); Herbert Kesler and Jennifer Trusty for research about evaluation and conservation of Harperocallis flava; and Alice A. Winn for a demographic analysis regarding the success or failure of Conradina glabra populations. Keywords:  Research grants, Conradina glabra, Illicium parviflorum, Nolina brittoniana, Nolna atopocarpa, Harperocallis flava

   Editor.   2009.   2009 Palmetto Awards.   Palmetto 25 (3): 6-7, 10-11.

Palmetto Award Recipients for 2009: Chapter Palmetto Award to Pinellas Chapter; Green Palmetto Awards for Outstanding support in service, education, science or techical espertise include the following: Chris Trost, Cocolobo Chapter; George R. Kish, Suncoast Chapter; Marc Godts, Tarflower Chapter; and Gayle Edwards, Cocolobo Chapter. 2009 Silver Palmetto Award to Board of Directors member who provided exemplary service to FNPS: Robin Caple, Marion Big Scrub; Paul Schmalzer, Sea Rocket Chapter; Shirley Denton, Suncoast Chapter; Mary and Ron Echols, Naples Chapter.

   FNPS Landscape Committee.   2010.   2010 Landscape Awards.   Palmetto 28 (3): 8-10.

2010 Landscape Awards to the following: Residencial Awards--Award of Honor, Hickey Residence; Award of Excellence, Cummings Residence; Award of Merit, Calhoun Meadows; Ecosystem Restoration Awards--Award of Excellence, Highland Oaks Mitigation Park; Award of Honorr, Peck Lake Park Mitigation Project; Transpotation Awards--Award of Honor: Kendallwood Park & Neighborhood Landscape Mitigation; Award of Merit, The Periwinkle Way Restoration Project. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   FNPS.   2010.   2010 Palmetto Awards.   Palmetto 27 (3): 12-15.

Announces 2010 Palmetto Awards, Silver Palmetto Awards and Mentor Award: Green Palmetto Awards for outstanding support in service, education, science or technical expertise: Kathy Burks, Trish Gramajo, Sonya Guidry, Greg Jubinski, and Bobbi Rogers. Silver Palmetto Awards for members of The FNPS Board of Directors who have provided exemplary service: Vince Lamb, Kari Ruder, and Cindy Liberton.  Mentor Award  for individuals who have made  outstanding contributions to the science and/or practice  of native plant preservation, conservation and restoration.  The Mentor Award is the highest honor FNPS can bestow: Anne Cox. Keywords: FNPS Awards. Green Palmetto Awards, Silver Palmetto Awards, and Mentor Award

   FNPS.   2010.   2010 Palmetto Awards, Chapter Award, Magnolia Chapter.   Palmetto 27 (4): 14.

The 2010 Chapter Palmetto Award was awarded to Leon County's Magnolia Chapter.

   FNPS Landscape Committee.   2011.   2011 Landscape Awards.   Palmetto 28 (2): 8-11.

Descriptions of the five 2011 residential awards with photographs of the top recipients for a design by a professional and by an amateur homeowner/designer. Oceanside Gem (Matecumbe Key); Henkelhaus Lakeside ; Reidential Award of Honor--the residence of owner/designer Julie Wert and Richard Stauffer; Residential Award of Merit--Birdgarden owned/designed by John A. Almada; Residential Honorable Mention--Green Home owned by Alex and Freda Green. Keywords: awards, residential landscape Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, residential landscape,

   FNPS Landscape Committee.   2011.   2011 Landscape Awards. Part II.. Non-residential Landscapes.   Palmetto 28 (3): 12-15.

2011's non-residential awards include descriptions and photographs of the five winners: Award of Excellence for Ecosystem Restoration to Gardens Pavillion, Palatlakaha Environmental and Agricultural  Reserve (PEAR) Park (Lake County); Award of Excellence for an Institutional Non-Profit to Tampa Bay Water Outback (Clearwater); Award of Honor for an Institutional Non-Profit Cotanchobee Fort Brooke Park (Tampa); Institutional Non-Profit Award of Merit: USF Park (Tampa); Transportation Landscape Award of Honor State Road 836 Welcome Gateway (Miami). Key Words: landscape awards, habitat restoration, Clearwater, Tampa, Miami

   FNPS Landscape Committee.   2012.   2012 Landscape Awards.   Palmetto 29 (4): 8-11.

The 2012 Landscape Awards feature 4 landscape projects, each earning Awards of Excellence. The Ecosystem Restoration Award: Back Dune Restoration, White Sands Cabana Club (Siesta Key, FL); Institutional Award: Haisley Lynch Park (Gainesville, FL); Residential Award: Carolyn Moore's End of the Road Ranch (North Fort Myers, FL); Transportation Award: Waldo Road Greenway (Gainesville, FL). Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, landscape awards

   Cordata, Xavier.   2013.   500 Artists, Gardens Commemorate Florida’s 500th Birthday.   Palmetto 30 (2): 8-11.

Xavier Cortada invited biologists, botanists and artists to identify and depict wildflowers that were around when Ponce de Leon first landed on our shores. The resulting FLOR500 project marks the moment when Florida’s history changed forever.

   Buckner, Cayley.   2020.   Latrodectus bishopi: The Red Widow.   Palmetto 36 (3): 4-7.

Presents a portrait of the red widow spider in the scrubs of Ocala National Forest.  The photography is beautiful.

   Rogers,.   2016.   Psilotum nudum (Whisk Fern).   Palmetto 33 (2): 2.

A brief portrait of this ancient fern relative.

   Jenkins, Amy.   2006.   Silene polypetala.   Palmetto 24 (1): .

Silene polypetala, an imperilled species from Jackson and Liberty Counties. Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Austin, Daniel.   1985.   Commelina gigas: Rediscovered and Lost.   Palmetto 5 (4): 11.

   Osorio, Rufino.   1990.   Pectis linearifolia.   Palmetto 10 (4): 4.

   Osorio, Rufino.   2008.   Piriqueta cistoides subsp. caroliniana.   Palmetto 25 (1): 8-9.

   Farnsworth, Steve.   1984.   Psilotum nudum: Survivor of Eons.   Palmetto 4 (1): 4.

Whisk fern

   Johnson, Ann F.   1983.   Quercus inopina: The "Unthought-of " Oak from South Central Florida.   Palmetto 3 (2): 5.

Keywords: endemic species, native species, scrub, scrubby flatwoods.

   Brolmann, John B..   1984.   Stylosanthes Hamata - South Florida Coastal Dune Plant.   Palmetto 4 (4): 5.

Stylosanthes hamata

   Bass, Steve.   2010.  

Book Review: Native Plant Landscaping for Florida Wildlife. By Craig N. Huegel




Palmetto 27 (3): .

The review praises Huegel's book Native Plant Landscaping for Florida Wildlife that lists and describes native plants that help gardeners create wildlife habitats. The focus largely focuses on a core group of Florida shrubs and trees that attract wildlife based on the author's lengthy personal experience and expertise, and includes a detailed description of each plant's value to wildlife and its growth needs. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, wildlife, wildlife friendly, Craig Huegel

   Richardson, Matthew L. and Cheryl L. Peterson.   2017.  

Toward Understanding Lakela's and Savannas Balm, Dicerandra immaculata


Palmetto 34 (3): 4-7, 11.

Lakela's and  savannas balm are two very rare subspecies of Dicerandra immaculata.  Even combined, they are very rare. There is still much to learn about Lakela's and Savannas balm in order to inform conservation efforts and prevent their extinction.  The article discusses the habitats, risks to the species, and ex-situ propagation at Bok Tower Gardens.

   Bartlett, Marcy R.   1982.  

Turkey Creek's Protean Paw Paw, Asimina tetramera

.   Palmetto 2 (2): 4-5.

The information is this article is good.  However, the plant is now listed federally as endangered.

   Huegel, Craig N.   2009.   A 'New' Species of Native Florida Orchid? Sacoila paludicola.   Palmetto 26 (2): 4-7.

Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Rosebraugh, Doris.   1982.   A Backyard Notebook, A Brief Summary of Personal Experience with Natives as Backyard Plants, No 1: Wax Myrtle.   Palmetto 2 (4): 5.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Rosebraugh, Doris.   1983.   A Backyard Notebook, A Brief Summary of Personal Experience with Natives as Backyard Plants, No 3: Florida Fiddlewood.   Palmetto 3 (2): 9.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Rosebraugh, Doris.   1983.   A Backyard Notebook, A Brief Summary of Personal Experience with Natives as Backyard Plants, No 4: Redberry Stopper.   Palmetto 3 (3): 3.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Rosebraugh, Doris.   1983.   A Backyard Notebook, A Brief Summary of Personal Experience with Natives as Backyard Plants, No 5: Black Ironwood.   Palmetto 3 (3): 3.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Rosebraugh, Doris.   1984.   A Backyard Notebook, A Brief Summary of Personal Experience with Natives as Backyard Plants, No 6: Satinleaf.   Palmetto 4 (2): 2.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Corogin, Paul and Francis E. Putz.   2006.   A Bog by the Highway A Unique Flora Faces an Uncertain Future.   Palmetto 23 (1): 6-7.

Explains why the Fowler's Prairie pitcher plant bog and other remaining wet prairie fragments require careful management to preserve the bogs disappearing because of both development and overgrazing, hydrologic impoundment and drainage, fire supression practices, and removal/destruction of rare plants unique to these ecosystems by people. Keywords: Fowler's Prairie, wet prairies, pitcher plants, bogs

   Bollenbach, Donna and Juliet Rynear.   2014.   A collaboration of passion, purpose and science.   Palmetto 31 (3): 4-7, 15.

Bok Tower Gardens' rare plant conservation program in collaboration with the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) was established to prevent the extinction of rare plants native to Florida, a "hotspot" for flora extinction. Currently housing 64 rare Central Florida and North Florida plants, this program at Bok Tower Garden's includes 29 federally-listed and 35 state-listed endangered or threatened native flora, the result of increased development, fire suppression in fire-adapted communities and habitat destruction from invasive plant species. Bok Tower's program follows strict scientific protocals to collect and preserve healthy plant species diversity and healthy genetic diversity to maintain a living bank of rare native plants used for research or cloned and introduced to protected sites. This process is challenging because while workers must follow rigorus guidelines, Florida land is being rapidly developed. Keywords: habitat loss, extinction, rare plants, genetic diversity, Center for Plant Conservation, 

   Wisenbaker, Michael.   2006.   A Conversation with Dr. Ellie Whitney.   Palmetto 23 (1): 10-11, 14.

Florida-based writer Michael Wisenbaker interviews Dr. Ellie Whitney about her role in creating PRICELESS FLORIDA.

   Starr, Wesley.   1990.   A Couple of Landscaping Ideas.   Palmetto 10 (1): 13.

   Bissett, Nancy.   1996.   A Final Word on Wild Grasses.   Palmetto 16 (1): 9-10.

Author Nancy Bissett immediately asserts her belief that bunch grasses should be included in wildflower gardens and restoration projects and explains why in this article with a focus on Wire Grass (Aristida stricta) with a salute to Audobon's Kissimmee Prairie Preserve, Bluestems, Love Grasses, Giant Plumegrass (Erianthus giganteus) Short-spike Bluestem (Andropogon brachystachys) and Great Dame Grass (Dicanthium commutatum). Audobon's Kissimmee Prairie Preserve now the Kissimmee Prairie Preserve State Park Key Words: bunch grasses, wildflower gardens, restoration

   Editor.   1985.   A Florida State Grass?.   Palmetto 5 (2): 11.

Indiangrass, Sorghastrum secundum

   Wettstein, Fritz.   1992.   A Future for Gopher Apples.   Palmetto 12 (1): 8-9.

Lycania michauxii.  Now Geobalinus oblongifolia.

   Moyroud, Richard.   1990.   A Green Carpet in the Biosphere.   Palmetto 10 (2): 20.

Grasses!  Including food crops and ornamentals.

   Wunderlin, Richard.   1992.   A Knotty Problem of Names.   Palmetto 12 (4): 8.

   Fishman, Gail and Scott Davis.   2013.   A Land Management Review Experience.   Palmetto 30 (3): 6-7.

FNPS participation in land management reviews around the state has many benefits for land managers, and for FNPS members who take part. 

   Winn, John.   1996.   A Longleaf Pine Restoration Project.   Palmetto 16 (4): 13-15.

Writer John Winn explains how he came to establish LEAFS, his effort to restore long-leaf pine ecosystems that had declined significantly by the time he established this non-profit land trust after deciding to restore his recently-acquired flatwoods to a resemblance of the longleaf pine ecosystem it had once been. He explans his motivation, the non-profit's focus on private landowners, and the non-profit's motivational techniques to encourage others to plant longleaf pines and manage that land using prescribed burns to encourage more natural growth in recreating longleaf pine ecosystem. Keywords: restoration, longleaf pine ecosystems, non-profit land trust

   Sathre, Ann.   1989.   A Mother's Version of Going Pitcher Plant Hunting.   Palmetto 9 (3): 5.

   Naccarato, Andee.   2014.   A native celebration.   Palmetto 31 (1): 8-11.

Staff and designers of Naples Botanical Garden sought to infuse a sense of place only to be found in Naples, Florida by creating ecosystem-based, naturalistic settings using native plants. Andee Naccarato explores how the garden is fulfilling its mission to connect people and plants.

   Cascio, Joe.   1983.   A Native Garden.   Palmetto 3 (1): 7.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Wiese, Christine Wiese and Michael .E. Kane.   2007.   A New Method of Propagation for Ziziphus celata (Florida ziziphus), a Florida Endangered Species.   Palmetto 24 (3): 4-7, 15.

Keywords: propagation.

   Brown, Paul Martin and Joel DeAngelis.   2008.   A New Orchid Species from Central Florida: Pteroglossapsis potsii (Orchidaceae).   Palmetto 25 (1): 4-7.

Found at the Potts Preserve. Keywords:  endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Jenkins, Amy.   2006.   A panhandle spring specialty.   Palmetto 24 (1): 8-11.

Silene polypetala

   McCartney, Chuck.   2015.   Across the straits: observations on plants in Cuba.   Palmetto 32 (4): 8-11, 15.

A retrospective of the 2015 Florida Native Plant Society tour to Cuba.

   Bissett, Nancy.   1993.   Allen David Broussard Catfish Creek State Preserve.   Palmetto 13 (2): 11-13.

Nancy Bissett begins the story of events leading to Florida's acquisition of the Allen David Broussard Catfish State Preserve with a description of an evening hike in the preserve by about 200 attendees after a day of lectures at an annual FNPS conference.  The Nature Conservancy was interested in acquiring the scrub land for the purpose of conservation/recreation, and the Broussard family was looking for conservation land to buy as a memorial to their recently deceased son. Their donation and money provided by another preservation group enabled the purchase of what became the Allen Broussard of the Catfish Creek State Preserve or Allen's Scrub. The 1,200 acres on the eastern Lake Wales Ridge is home to native plants including 14 rare species, seven found on the Lake Wales Ridge and seven endemic to Florida's scrubs. Bissett's moving eulogy to Allen David Broussard provides readers with an understanding of why naming this conservation land after him seems especially appropriate  Keywords:  endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, state parks, conservation lands, scrub, Lake Wales Ridge

   Lazarus, Sandy.   2000.   Alyene Hays, an interview.   Palmetto 20 (2): 12-13.

   Austin, Daniel.   1991.   American Bays.   Palmetto 11 (2): 12-13.

A discussion of the unrelated species known by the common name 'bay'.  Keywords:  Florida natives.

   Osorio, Rufino.   2004.   American Black Nightshade.   Palmetto 23 (1): .

Solanum americanum.  A discussion of American black nightshade including biology and occurrence in natural and urban landscapes.

   Zakarkaite, Kristina and Francis E. Putz.   2017.   American Lotus and its close Asian counterpart.   Palmetto 34 (2): 12-15.

The yellow-flowered American lotus (Nelumbo lutea) is closely related to the only other species in the genus, the pink-flowered Asian sacred lotus (N. nucifera). Did seeds of the American lotus arrive in the Americas by way of the Bering Strait Land Bridge, some 14,000 years ago? (the primary author had to conclude "no" on this given that the species has been geneticly distinct from the sacred lotus for something on the order of 1.5 million years.   The authrors discuss uses by Native Americans for which this was an important food.
  Keywords:  botanical history, ethnototany

   Zakarkaite, Kristina and Jack Putz.   2017.   American lotus and its cose Asian counterpart.   Palmetto 34 (2): 11-15.

This article discusses the origins of the American lotus and its genetic ties to the Asican lotus to which it is closely related.

   Cascio, Joe.   1983.   An Ecological Approach to Plant Design.   Palmetto 3 (4): 6-7.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Paker, John H..   1983.   An Energy Analysis of Residential Landscapes.   Palmetto 3 (3): 7-10.

Keywords: landscaping, micro-climate.

   Alexander, Taylor R.   1981.   An Exotic Plant Pest.   Palmetto 1 (1): 2-3.

Describes downy rose-myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosus. Keywords: invasive species, pest plants

   Bennett, Bradley.   1997.   An Introduction to the Seminole People of South Florida and Their Plants, Part 1.   Palmetto 17 (2): 20-21, 24.

The use of plants by the Seminole Indians of southern Florida. Keywords:  ethnobotany.

   Bennett, Bradley.   1997.   An Introduction to the Seminole People of South Florida and Their Plants, Part 2.   Palmetto 17 (3): 16-18, 22.

The use of plants by the Seminole Indians of southern Florida. Keywords:  ethnobotany.

   Fishman, Gail.   2000.   Angus Gholson, an iIterview.   Palmetto 20 (1): 19-20.

   Farsnworth, Steve.   1988.   Another Exotic Nuisance - The Chinese Tallow Tree.   Palmetto 8 (4): 10.

Keywords: invasive species, pest plants.

   Shropshire, Marjorie.   2010.   Ants, Anthill, and Biodiversity with E.O. Wilson; An Interview with E.O. Wilson.   Palmetto 27 (1): 5-7.

   Minno, Maria , and Ronald Myers.   1986.   Archibold Biological Station: Its History and Its Biology.   Palmetto 6 (4): 3-7.

   Austin, Daniel.   1981.   Are Endangered Florida Plants Really Endangered?.   Palmetto 1 (1): 4-6.

Author Daniel Austin questions whether some plants listed as endangered Florida natives have been adequately studied to acurately determine native status and assesses whether the known facts available were sufficient to make that determination. Keywords:  endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species,

   LaRue, Diane.   2012.   Atlantic Coastal Plain Flora – Florida and Nova Scotia The Effects of Glaciation and Sea Level Changes on Vegetation.   Palmetto 29 (3): 4-7.

In the second of three articles examining Atlantic Coastal Plain plants occurring in both Florida and Nova Scotia, author Diane LaRue focuses on these plants as a means of studying the impact of climate and sea level change on the rarity of common vegetations in the 2 disjunct localities. LaRue identifies 93 common but unrelated wetland species in Nova Scotia. Of these ACPF, she notes that nearly 75 percent are considered rare in Nova Scotia. (Author includes leagal definition for species to be declared rare in Canada and endangered in Nova Scotia.)  Sixty percent of Nova Scotia's ACPF are also found in Florida and frequently considered common. All common plants are fpound in wetlands, but the type of wetland ecosystem differs. LaRue creates charts comparing legally protected ACPF plant status in Nova Scotia/Canada to the same plants in Florida (Table 1), ACPF plants common in both Florida and Nova Scotia to their respective habitats (Table 2), ACPF common in FLorida but rare in Nova Scotia (Table 3), and ACPF rare in both Florida and Nova Scotia (Table 4).

   Wylly, Molly.   1992.   Audubon's Wild Poinsettia.   Palmetto 12 (4): 8.

   Hart, Robin L.   1995.   Backlash to the Native Plant Movement.   Palmetto 15 (1): 9-11.

When there is a backlash to a movement, it indicates that the movement is having some effect. The article discusses the use of native plants in the landscape and the politics surrounding their recommendation and use. It specifically references the misinformation that is prevalent and stresses the importance of education.

   Huegel, Craig N.   2013.   Bartram’s Ixia: (Calydorea caelestina).   Palmetto 30 (2): 4-6.

For more than 150 years, botanists searched in vain for Bartram’s ixia. Not until 1931 was definitive proof of its existence provided in a publication by another famous Florida botanist, John Kunkel Small. Craig Huegel explores why this lovely plant is so elusive. Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Black, Robert J.   1981.   Be a Water-Saver.   Palmetto 1 (3): 1.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Braun, Greg.   2013.   Beaches are wonderful places.   Palmetto 30 (1): 12-15.

Whether you are a resident of coastal or inland Florida, you probably live no more than an hour or two from a fascinating area of coastal shoreline. Greg Braun takes a look at some of Florida’s beachside plant species and the high energy habitat they occupy.

   Zona, Scott.   1994.   Beautyberry, An Under-used Native.   Palmetto 14 (1): 3-4.

Callicarpa americana Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Leslie Nixon with photographs by Laura Langlois-Zurro.   2023.   Bee friendly using Florida native plants.   Palmetto 39 (3): 8-13.

Importance of native plants for native bee conservation, and practical guidance for planting natives to support bees.

   Hall, David.   1991.   Beggar's-Tick.   Palmetto 11 (1): 15.

Bidens alba. Author captures the history of Bidens alba and howother plants' arrivals may have mirrored it, describes the plants key characteristics, and argues that its benefits should be considered before weeding it out. Key words: Biden alba, beggarticks, weeds, history

   Jordan, William III.   1987.   Beyond Preservation.   Palmetto 7 (1): 7.

The global community is attempting to preserve examples of the earth's ecological communities. But preservation along isn't enough. Restoration is needed. The University of Wisconsin Arboretum has been conducting tallgrass prairie restoration for several decades. The restorationist's effort has broad economic and ecological implications for landscaping, both practically and spiritually. Article reprinted from the Orion Nature Quarterly

   Hopper, Rob.   2002.   Bill & Nancy Bissett, an interview.   Palmetto 21 (4): 6-7.

   Partington, Bill.   2000.   Bill Partington, personal statement.   Palmetto 20 (1): 21-23.

   Dawkins, Karim and Nwadiuto Esiobu.   2020.   Bioinoculants: A New Tool for Combating Plant Invasion.   Palmetto 38 (1): 6-9, 11.

Presents the results of a study on using beneficial microbes to improve the biomass yield of natives but not that of the invasive Brazilian pepper.  Augmenting the soil with these microbes appears to facilitate early germination and establishment of native plants which shoiuld augment their competitive advantage and resilience against invasion; underscoring the potential relevance of bioinoculants as a tool to improve native plant restoration efforts.

   Austin, Daniel.   1995.   Black Calabash Bears Fruit in Florida!.   Palmetto 15 (2): 6-7.

Amphitecna latifolia. Keywords. Rare Plants, rare species.

   Austin, Daniel.   1992.   Black Calabash in Southern Florida.   Palmetto 12 (1): 6-7.

Amphitecna latifolia Keywords:  rare species, rare plants.

   Lantz, Peggy.   1988.   Bobcat Nature Trail.   Palmetto 8 (3): 7.

Palm Lake Elemenntary's Parent Teacher Association convinced the school system to leave a natural area to create an elementary school nature trail in Orange County. Despite some difficulties, the parents and the FNPS Tar Flower built the trail and benches for the outdoor classes with financial support from the school's PTA, Martin Marietta and the Dr. Phillip's Foundation and with the school's teachers writing a science curriculum for the 2 acre outdoor classroom and trail. 

   Nelson, Gil.   2008.   Bog Gardening with Carnivorous Plants.   Palmetto 25 (4): 4-7.

Sarracenia sp. Keywords:  gardening.

   Wallace, Susan R.   1988.   Bok Tower Gardens Saving Florida"s Rare Plants.   Palmetto 8 (1): 4-7.

A report on the rare pjlant conservation program at Bok Tower Gardens, Center for Plant Conservation and its rare plant collection. The article lists the species in the collection as of 1988 and provides photographs of several rare Lake Wales Ridge endemics. Keywords:  gardening, demonstration garden, endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Drylie, David.   1983.   Book Review: A Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central Florida by Richard P. Wunderlin.   Palmetto 3 (3): 11.

[editor's note]  There are multiple more recent editions of this book.  Seek out the newest edition as there have been numerous changes since the original version was published.  This remains a very important reference for plant taxonomy in Florida.

   Judd, Walter S.   1995.   Book Review: A Remarkable New Book on Florida Plants by Wendy Zomlefer.   Palmetto 15 (1): 16.

A review of 'Guide to Flowering Plant Families' by Wendy Zomlefer. This bood includes beautiful plates of plant families. Most illustrations are of species found in Florida. The book includes an expansive appendix to 551 terms which are carefully defined. Keywords:  plant identification, taxonomy.

   Dingwell, Sue.   2009.   Book Review: Bringing Nature Home by Doug Tallamy.   Palmetto 26 (2): 10-11.

Includes the book review and an interview with Doug Tallamy by the author Keywords:  Book Review, native landscaping, gardening.

   Editor.   1992.   Book Review: Butterfly Gradening for the South by Geyata Ajilvsgil.   Palmetto 12 (4): 18.

Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, butterfly nectar plants, Book Review

   Editor.   1988.   Book Review: Caribbean Wild Plants & their Uses by Penelope N. Honychurch.   Palmetto 8 (3): 12.

Keywords: Book Review, Plant identification, ethnobotany.

   Dehgan, Bijan.   1984.   Book Review: Common Florida Angiosperm Plant Families, Part I by Wendy B. Zomlefer.   Palmetto 4 (1): 6.

The reviewer of Wendy B. Zomlefer's self-published book, Common Florida Angiosperm Plant Families, Part 1, calls this first volume of 34 Florida's angiosperm famiies a welcome addition in the absence of a comprehensive collection of Florida's flora. The 107 page book includes illustrations of each included plant family, a clear technical description of each family, morphological features, and the evolutionary interations between a plant and its pollinators. The review highlights the writer's "outstanding" illustrations but finds the lack of keys the one miss. Keywords:  Plant identification,Taxonomy, Common Angiosperms 

   Martin, Jack B.   2006.   Book Review: Florida Ethnobotany by Daniel Austin.   Palmetto 23 (2): 12.

   Wisenbaker, Mike.   2009.   Book Review: Florida Magnificent Wilderness: State Lands, Parks and Natural Areas by James Valentine and D. Bruce Means.   Palmetto 26 (3): 12.

This is a coffee table book.

   Editor.   1988.   Book Review: Florida, Images of the Landscape by James Valentine.   Palmetto 8 (3): 12.

This is a coffee table book.  Keywords:  Book Review

   Editor.   1988.   Book Review: Florida, My Eden by Frederic B. Stresau.   Palmetto 8 (3): 12.

Book review

   Stibolt, Ginny.   2014.   Book review: Forgotten Grasslands of the South: Natural History and Conservation by Reed Noss.   Palmetto 31 (1): 15.

Keywords:  Book Review

   Brinson, Sydney.   1986.   Book Review: Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle by Andre F. Clewell.   Palmetto 6 (2): 7.

The author's review of Andre F. Clewell's  Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle" characterizes the book as a "long-awaited text" covering a wide range of vascular plants including ferns, gymnosperms and angiosprems from Escambia County in the west to the Suwannee River in the east. The review praises its alphabetical arrangement but finds its lack of illustrations and use of dual indexes for common and scientific name problematic. Keywords:  plant identification, taxonomy.

   McCartney, Chuck.   2010.   Book Review: Native Bromeliads of Florida by Harry E. Luther and David H. Benzing.   Palmetto 27 (2): 13.

McCartney offers high praise for both academic and professional backgrounds of authors Harry E. Luther and David H. Benzing of the book Native Bromeliads of Florida calling both men authoritative writers with expertise in botany and knowledge of bromeliads. The book describes the18 native species, including both the familiar and unfamiliar, the dramatic and the common. The book's photography is singled out for their high quality color photography and the  content for the dichotomous keys, distribution maps, the taxonomic history of each species and its introduction for the description of a bromilead's anatomy and physiology and the family's taxonomy, all written in accessible language Keywords:  air plants, dichotomous keys, epiphytes, rare plants, taxonomic history, pineapple family

   Workman, Dick.   1982.   Book Review: Natural Landscaping: Designing with Native Plant Communities by John Diekelmann and Robert Schuster.   Palmetto 2 (3): 10.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Dingwell, Sue.   2020.   Book Review: Nature's Best Hope by Doug Tallamy.   Palmetto 36 (2): 12-14.

Keywords:  Book Review, native landscaping

   Stibolt, Ginny.   2013.   Book Review: Nature's Fortune: How Business and Society Thrive by Investing in Nature by Mark Tercek.   Palmetto 30 (3): 11.

Keywords: Book Review

   Nelson, Gil.   2008.   Book Review: Pitcher Plants of the Americas by Stewart McPherson.   Palmetto 25 (4): 7.

Gil Nelson praises Pitcher Plants of the Americas by Stewart McPherson claiming it gets "high marks"  for an "excellent read" with details only limited by a broad interpretation of pitcher plants permitting the inclusion of species like the powdery strap airplant that relies on insectivory to meet its nutritional needs.  Keywords:  plant identification, taxonomy, endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Gometz, Anne.   1997.   Book Review: Plant Invaders: The Threat to Natural Ecosystems by Quentin C.B. Cronk and Janice L. ;Fuller].   Palmetto 17 (1): 5, 18.

Keywords: invasive species, pest plants.

   Stibolt, Ginny.   2013.   Book Review: Principles of Landscape Design by Travis Beck.   Palmetto 30 (2): 7.

Keywords:  native landscaping. Book Review

   Editor.   1983.   Book Review: The Biology of Trees Native to Tropical Florida by P. B. Tomlinson.   Palmetto 3 (1): 10.

Keywords:  Book Review.

   Editor.   1992.   Book Review: The Guide to Florida Wildflowers by Walter Kingsley Taylor.   Palmetto 12 (4): 18.

Book review.  Keywords:  Plant identification, Book Review.

   Stibolt, Ginny.   2014.   Book review: The Living Landscape: Designing for Beauty and Biodiversity in the Home Garden by Doug Tallamy and Dick Darke.   Palmetto 31 (2): 10-11.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Donaldson, Cameron.   1997.   Book Review: The Sabal Palm, A Native Monarch by Barbara Oehlbeck.   Palmetto 17 (2): 5.

This brief review of Barbara Oehlbeck's book about the Sabal Palm focuses on the need for Florioda's children to understand the value of Florida's state tree. Donaldson praises her use of stories and essays from a variety of sources, both academics and "old-timers," who explain the value of Florida's cabbage palm and notes the book's illustrations, color photographs and the "ever-awesome" black and white photographs by well-known Florida nature photographer, Clyde Butcher.

   Bausch, Joan.   2007.   Book Review: The Swamp - The Everglades, Florida, and the Politics of Paradise by Michael Grunwald].   Palmetto 24 (4): 2.

Review calls Michael Grunwald's book The Swamp: The Everglades. Florida and the Politics of Paradise a "perfect primer" for readers interested in the Everglades, its degredation and its revival. The book offers an abridged history of its early development and the politicians' efforts efforts to drain the land for development and naturalists' efforts to prevent that from happening.  Keywords:  wetlands, marsh, national park, politics, 

   McCartney, Chuck.   2004.   Book Review: Wild Love Affair: Essence of Florida?s Native Orchids by Connie Bransilver,.   Palmetto 23 (1): 11.

McCartney focuses on the artistic focus of Connie Bransilver's book, Wild Love Affair: Essence of Florida's Native Orchids, a "coffee table-style book" and finds its romantic focus, fuzzy focus and her impressionistic approach in both photographs and words wanting in comparison to the more practical, realistic field guides with clear, crisp photographs and descriptions of species details preferred by botanists and informed enthusiasts. Keywords: native orchids,  photographic quality, art versus science, audience

   McCartney, Chuck.   2005.   Book Review: Wild Orchids of Florida by Paul Martin Brown.   Palmetto 23 (1): 14-15.

Mccartney compares the book Wild Orchids of Florida to what he calls the gold standard of books about wild orchids in Florida and finds it wanting in its accuracy of credits for identification, uneven photography, "inelegant" botanical sketches and the author's use of unfamiliar species' names. He does like its inclusion of maps of the orchid's distribution, its small size and the heavy coated pages for its use as a field guide.  Keywords:  native orchids, rare plants, rare species, plant identification, taxonomic names, 

   McCartney, Chuck.   2011.   Book Review: Wildflowers of Florida and the Southeast By David W. Hall and William J. Weber.   Palmetto 28 (4): 14-15.

McCartney gives Wildflowers of Florida and the Southeast an overall favorable review of its botanical content with mostly inconsequential exceptions regarding its weight (too heavy for a portable field guide), the book's uneven quality of illustrations and a few misidentifications of illustrations and photographs. Perhaps criticism less of note to an ametuer botanist would be the criticism of capitalization, the occasional misspelling of lengthy place names, and inconsistency of stylistic usages. His most critical of these issues is his dislike of species grouping by flower colors.

   Rebmann, Paul.   2010.   Book Review: Wildflowers of Tennessee, the Ohio Valley, and the Southern Appalachians by Dennis Horn, Tavia Cathcart, Thomas E. Hemmerly and David Duhl.   Palmetto 27 (1): .

The reviewer, a Tennessee native but long-time Florida native, gives the Wildflowers of Tennessee, the Ohio Valley and the Southern Appalachians thumbs up both for thorough coverage in its content and field durability despite its hefty just under 500 pages.  Keywords:  plant identification, field guide, Panhandle species, family keys 

   Editor.   1986.   Book Review: William Bartram in Florida, 1774 edited by Helen G Cruickshank.   Palmetto 6 (4): 12.

Keywords:  Book Review

   Stibolt, Ginny.   2017.   Books of Note:  Garden Revolution: How our Landscapes Can Be a Source of Environmental Change by  Larry Weaner and Thomas Christopher.   Palmetto 34 (2): 10-11.

The book was published in 2016.  The reviewer points out its emphasis on sustainable landscaping practives.  

   Morrison, Ken.   1991.   Boycott Mulch!.   Palmetto 11 (2): 16.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Eastman, Linda.   2019.   Building Chapter Success.   Palmetto 35 (2): 14-15.

Challenged to survive a change of venue and answer the call to increase membership, the Martin County Chapter grew by 65% through enhanced communications, vigorous outreach, strong mission-focused programs,
and the friendliest meetings in town. Keywords:  FNPS chapters

   Cox, Anne.   2010.   Building Partnerships - One State Land at a Time.   Palmetto 27 (4): 8-12.

   Fazio, James R..   1992.   Building with Trees: Trees and Development Can Be Compatible.   Palmetto 12 (2): 12-13.

Speaks about positioning developed areas and natural areas in the landscape. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Huegel, Craig.   1992.   Bumelias.   Palmetto 12 (3): 6-8.

Provides a description of Florida's bumelias (bulllies).  Now Sideroxylon.  Keywords:  Species profiles.

   Hurchalla, Maggie.   1984.   Bureaucracies and Disappearing Native Habitat.   Palmetto 4 (4): 7.

In 1984 Hurchalla suggests that the extinction of rare and endangered plants and unique ecosystems may not be what saves native Florida habitats. Instead, she argues, it will be a shortage of water and the cost of providing potable water in South Florida that forces bureaucracies and business to stop bull-dozing land to open it for development and agree to retain these habitats saving their unique and endangered plants from extirpation. Keywords: Water Shortage, development, habitat destruction

   Hall, David.   1985.   Bushy Aster.   Palmetto 5 (4): 10.

Symphyotrichum dumosum (formerly Aster dumosus).

   Minno, Marc C. and Jeffrey R. Slotten.   1998.   Butterflies Feed at White-Topped Pitcher Plants.   Palmetto 18 (3): 9.

The authors describe a butterfly count of rare butterflies on Elgin Air Force Base where surveyers came across a large area of white-topped Pitcher Plants (Sarracinia leucophylla), noticed a honey-like scent coming from the White-topped Pitcher Plants and a variety of butterfly species feeding at the mouths of these plants. The article includes a species count and a description of the plants. Keywords:  endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, butterfly, pitcher plants

   Butts, Debbie.   1991.   Butterflies Prefer - ?.   Palmetto 11 (2): 8.

Debbie Butts shares her notes taken during Dr.Craig Huegel's presentation of his scientic paper "Butterfly Use of Native Florida Wildflowers in an Urban Butterfly Garden." The author notes Dr. Huegel's role in the development of Pinellas County's Extension Office "beautifully landscaped" native gardens and lists 12 butterfly species with their preferences for native plant species in these gardens. Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, butterfly nectar plants.

   Keim, Mary.   1993.   Butterfly Counting.   Palmetto 13 (3): 24.

Author Mary Keim writes that in order to count butterflies, a person must know both the butterfly species' habitat preferences and native larval host plant and prefered nectar plants. Keim chose areas for the North American Butterfly Association's 1993 count based on knowledge of both butterfly and plant species, and this article details the species and number of butterflies observed, the native plant associated with each species at the time of observation and the number of butterflies in each stage of the butterflies' life cycle.  Keywords: butterfly species, host plants, nectar plants, butterfly count, NABA

   Hannahs, Eve A.   1984.   Butterfly Gardening with Native Plants.   Palmetto 4 (1): 3.

Hannahs explains the relationship between butterfly species and native plants that developed over years before non-native plants were introduced to Florida. As a result, she explains, butterflies' specific preferences for larval host plants and nectar plants are limited sometimes to one plant or a single genus. She offers the Atala of South Florida and the Zebra Swallowtail as examples of how butterfly populations have been altered as a result of development and alteration of their habitats causing near loss of one and the limitation of range for the other. To help the butterfly populations, she argues that individuals and organization need to avoid the use of insecticides and herbicides and to plant native larval host plants and native necatar plants preferred by the various species . To this end, Hannahs has included a list of Florida butterflies and their native larval host plants. Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, butterfly nectar plants, butterfly habitat loss

   Moyroud, Richard.   1996.   Cabbage Palms.   Palmetto 16 (3): 13-15.

Sabal palmetto.

   Nett, Harold J.   1981.   Can Anybody Find a Champion Tree?.   Palmetto 1 (2): 8.

   Moyroud, Richard.   1998.   Can I Interest You in Some Florida Swampland.   Palmetto 18 (2): 6-10, 28.

A discussion of mechanisms used by species which grow in forested wetlands (swamps) to survive under the extreme conditions and fluctuations present in those wetlands. The discussion includes cypress knees, lenticels, pneumataphores, aerial roots, buttresses, and other anatomical adaptations needed to keep the roots aerated.

   Bacchus, Sydney T.   1991.   Can Wetlands Be Successfully Created?,.   Palmetto 11 (3): 3-6.

Keywords:  Wetland creation, restoration. The information is outdated, but some of the points are still valid.

   Curtis, Linda.   2013.   Carex: Where Are They?.   Palmetto 30 (4): 12-14.

Sedges such as Carex grow in every part of Florida, except for the Keys, where they are limited by a lack of salt tolerance. Linda Curtis explores the multitude of locations where Carex can found

   Lockhart, Chris.   1996.   Carrotwood Lookout.   Palmetto 16 (1): 8.

Cupaniopsis anacardioides. Keywords: invasive species, non-natives, aliens.

   Editor.   2002.   Cathie Katz Memorial.   Palmetto 21 (3): 21.

Keywords:  People

   Lieberman, Barbara.   2000.   Cecil Kilmer, an interview.   Palmetto 20 (2): 15-16.

   Tarflower Chapter, FNPS.   1998.   Champion Lyonia Discovered in Central Florida.   Palmetto 18 (2): 23.

   Ward, Daniel B.   1990.   Checklist of the Trees Native to Florida.   Palmetto 10 (4): 8.

   Eisner, Thomas.   1991.   Chemical Defense of a Rare Mint Plant.   Palmetto 11 (3): 10-11.

Dicerandra frutescens. Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Austin, Daniel.   2000.   Chiggery Grapes.   Palmetto 20 (2): 7-9.

Tournefortia hirsutissima. Keywords:  Florida natives, ethnobotany.

   Jubinsky, Greg.   1993.   Chinese Tallow Gets Worse!.   Palmetto 13 (3): 3-4.

A description of Chinese tallow, its Florida distribution, ecology, and problem characteristics. Sapium sebiferum Keywords:  invasive species, non-natives, aliens.

   Austin, Daniel.   1997.   Christmas Botany or How Reindeer Learned to Fly.   Palmetto 17 (3): 12-14, 23.

A discussion of some of the Christmas holiday uses of plants.  Not all related to Florida natives. Keywords:  ethnobotany.

   Editor.   2002.   Chuck Salter Memorial.   Palmetto 21 (3): 5.

Keywords:  People

   Hall, David.   1987.   Climbing Aster.   Palmetto 7 (1): 16.

Author describes Aster carolinianus, a diffuse 'bush' or a climber (2023 classification--Symphyotrichum carolinianum), its native range, plant characteristics, best practices for successful seed collection and propagation, and the location choice's impact on growth and flowering.  key words: climbing aster, Symphytrichum carolinianum, natives, history  

   Hannahs, Eve.   1985.   Cloudless Sulphur.   Palmetto 5 (3): 16.

Hannahs describes the Cloudless Sulphur's appearance and the differences between the males and females, their southward migration, the larval caterpillar's appearance and its larval host plants including the larvae's daytime hideouts, and the adult's favorite nectar sources. Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, larvae's hiding place, nectar sources

   Farnsworth, Steve.   1985.   Cold Hardiness Report on Tropical Native Plants.   Palmetto 5 (3): 12.

Farnsworth catagorizes severity of damage to tropical native plants in nursery rows during the January 20-22, 1985 freeze that were exposed to a range of freezing temperatures from 27 degrees Fahrenheit to 32 degrees Fahrenheit for 8 hours. These evaluations were supplemented by a study of 12-year native plantings in a nearby park and nursery where temperatures ranged from 32 degrees to 26 degrees Fahrenheit. The results of the study of the degree of damage to the tropical native plants are catagorized as follows: Little or to no damage (less than 10 percent suffering damage and the damage limited to the loss of few leaves); Moderate damage (less than 50 percent damaged and damage limited to leave loss and small twig killed); Severe damage (more than 50 percent hurt or killed back to major branches or down to ground).  Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, urban forest, urbanization

   Schwartz, Mike, and Jora Young.   1992.   Collecting Rare Plants from the Wild: A Threat to Conservation Efforts.   Palmetto 12 (3): 8-9.

Collecting rare plants from the wild has the potential to harm native populations. Collecting entire plants is the worst, but cuttings can also cause problems. Collecting is sometimes illegal. A sidebar provides the FNPS Policy on Transplanting native Plants from the wild. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening policy, rare plants, endangered species, rare species.

   Hall, David W.   1996.   Common Freshwater Aquatic Grasses.   Palmetto 16 (1): 17.

Keywords:  Plant identification.

   Hall, David.   1985.   Common Spiderwort.   Palmetto 5 (2): 16.

This1985 description of Tradescantia ohiensis outlines the roots of Common Spiderwort's botanical name, native range, the physical characteristics of the plant, flowers and seeds, propagation  techniques, and preferred site and soil conditions as well as unusual needs to save a spiderwort flower and its use in beginning botany classes.  keywords: spiderwort, native range, education, propagation

   Lewis, Scott and Joyce Maschinski.   2009.   Connect to Protect: Creating Corridors to Protect South Florida’s Pine Rockland Plants.   Palmetto 26 (1): 4-7.

Article focuses on the South Florida effort to save endangered pine rockland plant species using a federal Connect to Protect grant to establish corridors between existing pine rockland areas with a four-part strategy to establish corridors and research their effectiveness in supporting the survival of 439 pine rockland species including 31 endemic species, 6 federally-listed endangered species and 9 candidates for the federal endangered list. Lewis and Maschinski include a brief historical overview of the area's loss to development and the stress of invasive species on a fire-supressed habitat that requires fire to maintain a healthy ecosystem. The authors detail the steps being taken to accomplish the grant's goals--working with government agencies, schools and private landowners to acquire land or to participate by allowing use of their land to establish corridors or stepping stones between public greenway areas and to research the effectiveness of these corridors in supporting the existence of endemic pine rockland species.

   Rynear, Juliet.   2017.   Connections Above and Below: The 2017 FNPS annual conference.   Palmetto 34 (1): 12-15.

The 2017 FNPS annual conference 2012 showcased every aspect of native plant and plant community conservation in Florida. The conference at Westgate River Ranch provided something for every native plant enthusiast – from researchers and conservation professionals to landowners, gardeners, and citizen scientists.

   Noss, Reed.   1986.   Conservation Guidelines.   Palmetto 6 (2): 12-13.

An early list of FNPS priorities most of which are very relevant today.

   Alvarez, K.   1983.   Conservation Issues of the Fakahatchee Strand.   Palmetto 3 (3): 7.

This article provides a brief history of the Fakahatchee Strand and its acquisition.  Some of the comments on conservation issues are a bit dated, in particular because considerable conservation land has been acquired since the article was written, such as Picayune Strand State Foreset and the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge. Keywords:  conservation areas, state parks, rare plants, endangered species, endangered plants, orchids, bromeliads, hydrology.

Austin, Dan.   2004.   Coontie: Discovering Florida's Ethnobotany.   Palmetto 22 (3): 10-12.

No. 10 in the Series. Baking a cake with rat poison. Well, maybe not. But the coonties has had some odd uses.

   Lantz, Peggy.   1984.   Coontie:The Handsomest of Native Plants.   Palmetto 4 (3): 3-4.

   Austin, Dan.   2006.   Cordia.   Palmetto 23 (1): 12-15.

Provides a description of Cordia globosa, its names (blood-berry is one), its range, and ethnobotany. Keywords:  Florida natives, ethnobotany.

   Austin, Daniel.   2004.   Cordia.   Palmetto 23 (1): 12-14.

Bloodberry, Cordia globosa. Keywords:  Florida natives.

   Buhrman, Judith.   2002.   Craig Huegel, an Interview.   Palmetto 21 (3): 8-9.

The focus of Dr. Craig Huegel's early work in Florida centered around wildlife biology and urban wildlife but shifted to include the interrelationships between Florida's native flora and fauna through his search for information about the state's native plants which led him to Florida Native Plant Society. Buhrman's article based on an interview Dr. Huegel highlights his path to expertise about Florida's native plants and their interrelationships with native wildlife found in both his articles written for FNPS publications and books with their lengthy lists of native plants, Huegel's focus on plant species commonly known and those seldom propogated or sold in local nurseries but that can be used to create urban wildlife habitats and his view of the role FNPS should play in Florida's future environmental policies. Key Words: Craig Huegel, Green Palmetton Award, Wildlife Habitats

   Morris, Judy.   1994.   Creating Habitats for Butterflies.   Palmetto 14 (3): 9.

Two basic principles apply: catipillars eat (larval food, leafy green plants) and butterflies drink (nectar from flowers). Attraction of butterflies requires awareness of the inset-plant connect. This article discussses reasons to plant a butterfly habitat. The most successful habitat in which the author was involved is the Haven Butterfly Garden Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, butterflies.

   Austin, Daniel.   1994.   Creepers, Climbers, Twiners, Lianas, Vines and Wines.   Palmetto 14 (3): 6.

The term ""climber" for a plant that goes up some supporting host, "creeper" for a climber that fails to find a support and trails over the ground are discussed. The term "vine" apparently originates from French and Latin words that reference the grape, and the term "wine"; references the same word origin.

   Lyrene, Paul.   2013.   Cross-pollination to ensure fruit and seed from native plantings.   Palmetto 30 (3): 12-15.

Fruit and seed production are important if we want to maximize the environmental benefits of native plantings. Paul Lyrene discusses methods to help natives in the home landscape become prolific producers.

   Hurchalla, Maggy.   1998.   Crossing the Everglades.   Palmetto 18 (2): 16-19.

Maggy Hurchalla and her brother Mark set out to cross the Everglades on foot. Their adventure included fighting through sawgrass, pinnacle rock, absence of surface water (to drink), hot sun, mosquitoes, buzzards, gators, rain, quagmires, and other challenges to wal from Ingraham Highway to the Shark Valley tower.

   Craig, R.M. and D. C. Smith.   1986.   Cucumberleaf Sunflower, Helianthus debilis Nutt. Erosion Control of Coastal Areas.   Palmetto 6 (4): 11-12.

Discusses the use of a native plant for coastal stabilization.  Editor's note:  There are 3 subspecies of Helianthus debilis, with naturally disjoint ranges.  There is the potential for introgression if the subspecies are planted outside of their natural ranges.  

   Yarlett, Lewis L.   1984.   Cutthroat Grass.   Palmetto 4 (1): 11.

Panicum abscissum.  Note:  the name has been changed to Coleataenia abscissa. Keywords:  endangered plants, endangered species, rare plants, rare species.

   Miller, Ray.   2001.   Cynthia Plockelman, an Interview.   Palmetto 21 (1): 16.

   Bonness, Maureen S.   2011.   Cypress Knees Exploit Stumps.  Taxodium distichum and T. ascendens make use of stumps..   Palmetto 28 (2): 4-7, 12.

   Herndon, Alan.   1984.   Dade County Pinelands.   Palmetto 4 (2): 3, 11.

By 1984, the year of this article's publication, the Miami Rok Ridge--once a large swath of pinelands--had mostly disappeared as a result of residential development. In its original state the area accounted for a rare example of plant life transitioning from the temperate plants in its northern-most areas to tropical plants in its southern-most areas. Many of the native Florida plants were endemic and rare and as herbaceous species undervalued even by conservationists. Herndon argues that the development of the small areas of pinelands remaining were vulnerable to developemnt and once developed, methods used in the process precluded its restoration. He lists the most vulnerable and most valuable remaining natural areas of pineland remaining and the most vulnerable endangered plant species arguing that the only way to save these rare plants and ecosystems is for government entities to purchase, preserve, and properly protect these areas and their plants.  Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, plant communities, pine rocklands, ecosystems.

   Miller, Ray.   2000.   Dan Austin, an Interview.   Palmetto 20 (1): 23-25.

   Williams, T. Ann.   2000.   Dan Ward, an interview.   Palmetto 20 (1): 23-25.

   Morrison, Steve.   2009.   Dancing in the Scrub.   Palmetto 26 (2): 8-9.

Presents the Florida endemic, Chapmannia floridana.

   Smith, Elizabeth.   1994.   Delicate Ionopsis.   Palmetto 14 (2): 8.

Delicate ionopsis, Ionopsis utricularioides, was discovered in 1904. This article describes the species and what is known of its habitat and phenology in Florida. Keywords: endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Chamberlain, Nadja.   1998.   Design with Natives 1998 Program Award Winners.   Palmetto 18 (4): 7, 13-15, 23.

The 1998 Design with Natives Award Winners  1st Place Institutional Award: Hypoluxo Town Hall (Hypoluxo, FL); 2nd Place Institutional Award: Downtown Mangrove Nature Park (Boynton Beach, FL); 3rd Place Institutional Award: Florida Turnpike Australian Pine Tree Removal (Florida Turnpike District); Institutional/Eduction Award: 1st Place Selby Gardens Shoreline Restoration (Selby Gardens); 2nd Place Institutional/Educational Award: Florida House Learning Center (Sarasota, FL); 1st Place Professional Commercial: River Forest (Bradenton, FL); 1st Place Professional Residential: Sachs Residence (Tavernier, FL); 1st Place Non-Professional Residential: Almada/Avery (Vero Beach, FL); 1st Place Professional Restoration: Cocohatchee Strand Restoration; 2nd Place Professional Restoration, Beachview Golfclub (Sanibel, FL); 1st Place Community Restoration: Indian Beach Sapphire Shores; 2nd Place Community Restoration: Beach Access (Atlantic Beach, FL). Keywords:  native landscaping, landscape awards, 

   Faulkner, Dorie and Rob Hopper.   1999.   Design with Natives 1999 Landscape Award Winners.   Palmetto 19 (3): 15-19.

!999 Design with Natives award winners and categories: Non-professional Residential Design: 1st Placec, Eisenbarth Residence; 2nd Place, Miller Residence; Professional Design: 1st place, Sarah Abel Residence designed by The Natives; Ecosystem Mitigation and Restoration: 1st Place, Turnpike District, Pine Rocklands Restoration; 2nd Place Riverwalk, Designed by C & N Environmental Consultants; 3rd Place, Sanctuary Cove, Designed by C & N Environmental  Consultants; Transportation: 1st Place, Kilday & Associates, Town of Hypoluxo Dixie Highway; 2nd Place, FDOT, District 1, Lakeland North-South Route; Institutional, 1st Place, Recreation & Park, The Heretige Nature Conservancy, Ocala; 2nd Place,The Preservation Foundation, Pans Garden, Palm Beach; Professional Designed Landscape: 1st Place, Brown & Crebbin Design Studio, Mariners Hospital; 2nd Place, EDSA, West Lake Park. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, competition

   Devine, Richard.   1994.   Designing the Natural Garden.   Palmetto 14 (3): 3-6.

The article discusses site analysis, planning, and landscape design for a natural yard, and presents illustrative diagrams for the various steps in the process. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   NeSmith, Peter.   1998.   Details of Plant Restoration and Enhancement in Area 112.   Palmetto 18 (4): 10.

   Lynch, Sharon.   2000.   Dick Deuerling, an interview.   Palmetto 20 (1): 15-17.

   Lantz, Peggy.   2013.   Dick Deuerling, wild food specialist.   Palmetto 30 (3): 15.

A biographical sketch of Richard (Dick) Deuerling.

   Trebatoski, JoAnne.   2000.   Dick Workman, an Interview.   Palmetto 20 (2): 18-19.

   Schmidt, Annie.   2000.   Dick Wunderlin, an interview.   Palmetto 20 (1): 25-27.

   Bowman, Catherine and Ron Blair.   2012.   Discoveries in the Vast Apalachicola River Wildlife Environmental Area.   Palmetto 29 (1): 12-15.

   Goodrich, Katherine.   2007.   Does Your Pawpaw Smell Flowery or Fermented?.   Palmetto 24 (4): 12-15.

A comparison of the ordor of members of the genus Deeringothamus and Asimina related to their pollinators. Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, plant identification.

   Otis, Diane.   2000.   Don & Joyce Gann, an interview.   Palmetto 20 (1): 17-19.

   Stout, Jack I.   1999.   Dry Places in the Florida Landscape.   Palmetto 19 (2): 4-8, 15.

After 28 years of studying Florida's dry econsystems, the author offers an explanation of various forces impacting them, not limited to climate changes over time, geology, human geography, and an area's variety of flora and fauna with a caution to keep in mind that scientific discoveries continue to emerge and that Florida's dry ecosystems are vulnerable to destruction as a result of a growing need for housing and transportation.  Stout offers a brief historical overview of the formation of Florida's 6 dry ecosystem types--Coastal Dunes, Sand Pine Scrubs, Rosemary Balds, Sandhills, Pine Rocklands, and some hammocks--present prior to European arrival, identifies their general locations throughout the state and what we know about these dry places' unique physical characteristics, identifies the main plant and animal species, the impact of their interactions, and the influences of other natural forces like fire, wind or rain on each area.  KEYWORDS: Southeastern coastal plain, endemism, Lake Wales Ridge, alleopathy

   Mock, Terry.   1995.   Earth Restoration: the Bridge to New Global Culture.   Palmetto 15 (2): 8-9.

   Hannahs, Eve.   1984.   Eastern Tiger Swallowtail.   Palmetto 4 (4): 16.

Article details the physical appearance of each stage of the life cycle of the Eastern Tiger Swallowtail: larvae stage (identifying host plants), the pupal stage, and the adult butterfly. Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, appearance

   Cascio, Joseph.   1982.   Education First.   Palmetto 2 (1): 3.

   Rynear, Juliet.   2018.   Emergency sandhill rescue: The story of Castle Hill.   Palmetto 34 (3): 12-15.

Castle Hill was famous among nature lovers for its beauty, rich diversity of plant species, and rolling hills.  Although this botanically diverse sandhill was lost to development, more than 4,800 plants were rescued from the site and transplanted to publicly owned conservation land in need of restoration.   This is the story of that rescue and the hoard of FNPS volunteers who make that possible. Keywords:  rare species, plant rescues

   Bailey, David.   1986.   Endangered Butterflies Come Back!,.   Palmetto 6 (4): 8.

Three butterflies thought to be extinct or near extinction made progress to being removed from the endangered/threatened list because individuals cared. The Atala, once declared extinct, the Schaus Swallowtail and the Sweadner's Hairstreak faced the peril of extinction, but (as of the 1986 publication) the species gained some minor population growth with the help of human advocates. The author discusses the butterflies' perils and how they were overcome despite habitat loss and pesticide use. Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, butterfly nectar plants, Atala, coontie, Schaus Butterfly, wild lime, Sweadner's Hairstreak, Cedar

   Kelly, Eugene.   2018.   Enncouraging News for Land Conservation.   Palmetto 34 (4): 14-15.

FNPS members played a pivotal role in the Florida Legislature's (2018) approval of $100.8 million to fund the Florida Forever land conservation program. But there is more work to be done. 

   Hall, David.   1985.   Erect Day-Flower.   Palmetto 5 (3): 15.

Commelina erecta

   Stone, Peter A.   2010.   Everglades Tree-Islands Vegetation Patches, Geologic Landforms, and Landscape Features.   Palmetto 27 (1): 4-7.

An introductory general description opens this artcle on Florida's tree island and its initial focus narrows to tree islands of the Everglades and 3 areas (the north, middle and Shark Slough of the southern portion) and the distinct types of islands typical to each of these areas. The author speculates on why these tree islands happen and how they happen and considers the role of fire and flood and human occupation and concludes with observations about their plant communities and the underlayers supporting them. KEYWORDS: Everglades, Bayheads, Baygalls, Hammock, 

   Creel, Olan Ray.   2002.   Evil Weevil Found in Fakahatchee.   Palmetto 21 (4): 8-9.

Author Creel describes the inspiration of his 30 year love for Florida's native bromeliads and how an invasive Mexican weevil's spread to the Fakahatchee Strand's bromeliads despite efforts to find a means of controlling it. Included are three side articles:  The Value of Bromeliads, How You Can Help and Evil Weevil Update. This update refers to an earlier Palmetto article in 1999, Volume 19, Issue 4 also by Olan Ray Creel. Please note:  As of 2023, the problem still persists.  Multiple organizations are tracking the issue including the Florida Council  of Bromeliad Societies.  To donate to their cause at  The names and addresses in the article are out of date. Keywords: Fakahatchee Strand, invasive insects, bromeliads, Metamasius callizona, evil weevil.

   Riefler, Steven M..   1984.   Exceptional Natives for Dune and Scrub Areas.   Palmetto 4 (2): 4.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Jubinsky, Greg.   1994.   Exotic Pest Plants.   Palmetto 14 (3): 8.

Exotic pest plants are a form of biological pollution that invades aquatic and terrestrial landscapes. Early detecton, eradication, or prevention are the only sure controls. Once established, exotic pest plants are extremely difficult and expensive to control.

   Hummel, Rita.   1986.   Exotics - The Monstrous Three.   Palmetto 6 (3): 6.

Keywords: invasive species, pest plants.

   Christman, Andrea N., Maria Minno, and Steven 'Torch' Miller.   1998.   Facts about Fire in the Native Landscape: Part I.   Palmetto 18 (4): 6, 12.

Questions from FNPs members with answers by the authors. The article discusses fire-dependent ecosystems and the issue of fire prevention, subdivisions on the natural community edge, and policies that encourage green space. These sometime add up to areas in which fire management is difficult.

   Christman, Andrea, Stevem Miller and Maria Minno.   1999.   Facts about Fire in the Native Landscape: Part II.   Palmetto 19 (1): 9, 21.

Questions in the second round of questions from FNPS members concern prescribed burns. Respondents explain why prescribed burns are appropriate, who may use them, what may be required to conduct and control a prescribed burn and what help is available for those whose property would benefit from one.

   Christman, Andrea N., Steven Miller and Maria Minno.   1999.   Facts about Fire in the Native Landscape: Part III.   Palmetto 19 (2): 18-20.

The third article concerning fires and native plants answers questions from FNPS members concerning how home landscaping choices of native plant species and landscaping design can help deter wild fires from destroying homes. The questions and answers focus on plant choices and locations of plants in both urban/suburban area and in more rural areas where homes back up to natural lands.  

   Coile, Nancy.   1994.   Family Affiliation of Species on the Regulated Plant Index of Sept 1993.   Palmetto 14 (1): 7-9.

A compilation of species on the FDACS plant list and the plant families that they represent.

   Possley, Jennifer.   2014.   Fern conservation in a biodiversity hotspot.   Palmetto 31 (2): 4-9.

Fern biodiversity in Miami-Dade County fern grottoes.

   Hammer, Roger.   1996.   Few-Flowered Fingergrass.   Palmetto 16 (1): 15-16.

Digitaria pauciflora.

   Herndon, Alan.   1985.   Fire in Natural Communities.   Palmetto 5 (3): 4-5.

After  media's focus on a year of extreme fires the author considers what is known about what fire accomplishes in a natural area like the South's pine flatwoods where fire is imperative for their management. How does fire encourage the continued growth of these ecosystems and their plant communities? and how does the lack of fire hinder their existence? What we don't know is the frequency and intensity of fires prior to human involvement and how these ecosystems and their plant communities reacted to these differing fire conditions prior to man's involvement. After brief consideration of fire's impact on hardwood hammocks and prairies, the author turns back to pine flatlands and the dangers of the practice of fire suppression. Keywords: prairie, hardwood forest, pine flatwoods, prescribed burns, fire-adapted communities

   Smith, Elizabeth.   1995.   Firebush South Florida’s Plant for All Seasons.   Palmetto 15 (3): 3.

Hamelia patens, firebush, attracts wildlife. When the red and orange flowers are plentiful, it attracts butterflies, and humminbirds. In winter other birds forage in the branches.

   Bissett, Bill.   1997.   Five Hundred Years of Florida Landscape - A Quick Tour.   Palmetto 17 (3): 6-11.

   Austin, Daniel.   1999.   Florida Atlantic University: an Island of Environmental Changes.   Palmetto 19 (1): 7-8.

This article describes the history of the land the FAU campus stands on and the evolution of both its natural, pre-FAU ecosystem and the urbanized campus that are the result of ever-revolving FAU personnel and campus policies and student/faculty environmental activism and their impact on the land, its wildlife occupants, and the FAU academic programs.

   Lee, Jim.   1999.   Florida Bonamia, Our Resilient Scrub Morning Glory: Will it Survive.   Palmetto 19 (2): 16-17.

After a brief historical review of the significant losses of indigenous people, plants and animals after European arrival, the auther  considers whether or not the endemic scrub morning glory will survive its disappearing habitat as a result of intense development of private lands in the Central Florida ridge where the plant grows naturally. The author describes the characteristics of Bonamia grandiflora, listed as endangered by the state and as threatened by the US Fish and Water Service.  Keywords:  endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, endemic, threatened plants, scrub species, scrub morning glory.

   LaPlante, Sharon.   1999.   Florida Butterfly Gardening: A complete Guide to Attracting, Identifying, and Enjoying Butterflies of the Lower South [Marc C. Minno & Maria Minno] (book review).   Palmetto 19 (4): 17.

Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, butterfly nectar plants.

   Smith, Elizabeth.   1995.   Florida Butterfly Orchid.   Palmetto 15 (2): 3.

Butterfly orchid is one of the most common epiphytic orchids found in Florida. The article describes the plant, and gives an overview of its phenology.

   Ward, Daniel, and Robert Ing.   1995.   Florida Champion Tree Project.   Palmetto 15 (1): 14-15.

A compilation of new Champion trees: Bucida buceras (black olive), Bucida spinosa (spiny black olive), Cereus robinii (key tree cactus), Coccoloba uvifera (sea grape), Drypetes diversifolia (milk-bark), Hypelate trifolia (white ironwood), Manilkara zapota (sapodilla). It also lists a number of species that have no champions.

   Burdett, Allen B. Jr.   1981.   Florida Does Too Have An Autumn!.   Palmetto 1 (4): 1-2.

The author declares that Florida does have a Fall season and offers 8 Florida native trees as evidence, describing their growth rate and pattern, mature size, and usual habitat as well as their Fall colors and when to expect the color change and leaf drop. These species are included: Flowering Dogwood, Red Maple, Florida Maple, Shumard Oak, Sweetgum, Turkey Oak, Pignut Hickory, and Bald Cypress.

   Farnsworth, Steve.   1983.   Florida Elm: An Overlooked Native.   Palmetto 3 (1): 3.

Ulmus americana

Martin, Jack B..   2006.   Florida Ethnobotany by Daniel Austin, a Review.   Palmetto 23 (2): 8-9.

Key words:  Book review

   Editor.   2018.   Florida Native Plant Month.   Palmetto 34 (4): 14-15.

A look forward to the 2018 Native Plant Month, but equally importantly, a statement of the program's goals and photographs of chapter delegations getting endorsements of Florida Native Plant Month from their local governments.

   Duever, Linda.   1983.   Florida Natural Areas Inventory.   Palmetto 3 (1): 6.

This is an introduction to Linda Duever's series on native plant communities.  That series uses the terminology of the Florida Natural Areas Inventory as it existed in 1983.

   Buhrman, Judith.   1992.   Florida Neighborhoods and Eco-Neighborhoods.   Palmetto 12 (2): 8-9.

   Womble, Hershell.   1984.   Florida Palms for Graceful Landscaping.   Palmetto 4 (2): 1-2.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Minno, Maria.   1992.   Florida Pines: Evergreens for the Christmas Season.   Palmetto 12 (4): 9-11.

   Bretz, Greg.   1982.   Florida Plants for Florida Birds.   Palmetto 2 (1): 4.

Focus on tree, shrubs and vines species, mostly native to Florida, that attract birds to a home garden and lists bird species that are attracted Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, native plants,non-native plants, wildlife, birds.

   Wisenbaker, Michael.   1989.   Florida Sinkhole Flora.   Palmetto 9 (1): 3-5.

Although Florida's sinkhole may be known more notably when they collapse, this article focuses on the incredibly unique habitats providing homes to rare plants and animals, some that would be recognizable to many Floridians and to others that cannot survive in more appreciated and theus more protected ecosystems. Sinkholes provide moisture needed to protect sinkhole and nearby life in the case of prescribed burns and other dangers and contribute to Florida's natual water collection system as detailed in the article. The article furhter identifies little-known plants, the invertebrates that nourish them, mosses, liverworts, ferns and other non-vascular plants, listing several rare plants that are either threatened or endangered, many who survive in very limited Florida locations identified in the article. Sadly, these unusual, underappreciated ecosystems also rank as one of Florida's most fragile so become vulnerable to unintended damage.  Keywords: endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, sink holes, limestone, threatened species, bryophytes

   Frank, Howard.   1999.   Florida’s Native Bromeliads Imperiled by Exotic Evil Weevil.   Palmetto 19 (4): 6-9, 12.

An analysis of the effects of Metamasius callizona, a weevil of Mexican origin, on the native bromeliads of Florida. Article presented as reprinted on the web page of IFAS.

   Cook, Charles.   2008.   Florida’s Struggle with Cogongrass and Native Plant Conservation.   Palmetto 25 (4): 8-10.

   Maehr, David S., and James N. Layne.   1996.   Florida's All-Purpose Plant: the Saw Palmetto.   Palmetto 16 (4): 6-10, 15, 21.

Serenoa repens

   McCartney, Chuck.   1997.   Florida's Aquatic Orchids.   Palmetto 18 (2): 20-23.

Florida has several species adapted to wetlands. Habenaria repens grows both rooted and floating in mats of vegetation and is relatively common. Platenthera nivea, the snowy orchid, blooms in bogs and wet meadows in May and June. Spiranthes odorata and S. cernua grow and bloom in as much as a foot of water in the Big Cypress swamp in autumn. Spiranthes laciniata rounds out the list of relatively common aquatic orchids; it blooms in the spring. Other, rare orchids, occur in Big Cypress and Fakahatchee strand as well as species that are usually terrestrial. Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, wetlands, swamps, savannas, bogs.

   Hammer, Roger.   2012.   Florida's Beloved Butterfly Orchid, Encyclia tampensis.   Palmetto 29 (1): 4-7.

   Ward, Daniel B.. and Robert T. Ing.   1996.   Florida's Big Tree: Measuring the Senator, Florida's Champion Bald Cypress.   Palmetto 16 (2): 14-16.

Taxodium distichum.  Out of date but still interesting

   Phillips, Philip Louis.   2009.   Florida's Botanical Art.   Palmetto 26 (2): 12-14.

   Sathre, Eric.   1989.   Florida's Carnivorous Pitcher Plants.   Palmetto 9 (3): 4.

Keywords: endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, carnivorous plants.

   Editor.   1993.   Florida's Most Invasive Species.   Palmetto 13 (3): 6-7.

Keywords:  Invasive Species

   Starr, Wesley.   1989.   Florida's Native Cactus: The Opuntia.   Palmetto 9 (3): 8.

   Duever, Linda.   1983.   Florida's Natural Communities: Coastal Dunes.   Palmetto 3 (4): 4-5.

Duever's descriptions of the three "ideal" plant communities located on Florida's coastal dunes include those found on Beach Dunes, Coastal Srands and in Maritime Forests. The article identifies three sub catagories of the Beach Dunes--temperate, tropical and Keys dunes--describes soil composition and the dune's formation and lists the pioneer plant species common to all three as well as the species which differ among them. The Coastal Strand is identified as a transitional area between the Beach Dunes and Maritime Mixed Forests. Soil composition and the transitional process explain the shift from herbaceous species stabablizing the dune structure and allowing the growth of shrubs species. The article lists both herbaceous plants and shrubs growing in this plant community. The final plant community resulting when the dune is stabablized  is the Maritime Hammock. Again the soil composition and lists of plant species commonly found in this community follow.

   Duever, Linda.   1985.   Florida's Natural Communities: Coastal Mounds.   Palmetto 5 (4): 15.

This article identifying plant communities growing on the calcareous soils of coastal mounds first identifies sources for areas of built up soil comprised mostly of shell remnants resulting from human disturbance--"natural" if from the work of indigenous people prior to Ponce de Leon's arrival or "unnatural" if the result of more contemporary human construction waste--or the works of nature--mainly winds and storms.  Before the list of plant species in these communities, the article delineates the various similarities and differences in soil composition and its general impact on the species before identifying which species can be found in coastal mound plant communities.  Keywords: FNAI, plant communities, soil, calcareous soil, shell mounds

   Duever, Linda.   1985.   Florida's Natural Communities: Cypress Swamps.   Palmetto 5 (1): 4-5.

This article about Florida's Cypress Swamps--the 7th in a series describing natural communities as defined by FNAI--focuses on the common characteristics found in the strands and domes of South Florida and follows with a description of the commonalities of the basin swamps in the Florida Panhandle and northern Okefenokee area. These descriptions include the topological characteristics and natural events impacting plant growth. The article concludes with a list of plants from trees and shrubs to epiphytes, ferns and the rare and often endangered plants that grow in Florida's Cypress swamps. Keywords: swamps, cypress, FNAI, strands, domes, basin swamps

   Duever, Linda.   1986.   Florida's Natural Communities: Dry Prarie.   Palmetto 6 (3): 8-9.

Author characterizes the dry prairies of Central Florida as unexpected and Texas-like and speculates whether the plant communities long-term use for grazing by indigenous people and later cattle ranchers use of fire to re-energize growth of fresh graasses and the logging of pines in Florida's pine flatwoods detered the regrowth of the pines or if the frequency of fire was from natural causes. The answer to this question may be made more difficult as the two plant communities have similar low-growing shrubs, grasses and wildflowers identified in the article.The threats to their existence concurrent to article publication were the growth of the demand for beef and the use of dry prairies as the location for citrus groves.    Keywords: pine flatwoods, improved pastures, dry prairies, cattle grazing

   Duever, Linda.   1984.   Florida's Natural Communities: Flatwoods.   Palmetto 4 (4): 6.

This 6th article in a series about Florida's Natural Communities describes Florida's ubiquitous Flatwoods. Although seen throughout Florida, this article reminds us that even when it was originally published in 1984, many of those flatwoods seen along the roads resulted from human intervention in the natural world which continues today nearly 40 years later. Before characterizing 3 different forms Florida flatwoods, the article focuses on fire--the natural means of maintaining flatwoods--impacts these natural areas. A description of  three flatwood variations--wet flatwoods, mesic flatwoods, and scrubby flatwoods--and the characterisitc plants of each natural community conclude the article. Keywords: fire, flatwoods, pine, 

   Duever, Linda.   1984.   Florida's Natural Communities: Floodplains.   Palmetto 4 (3): 8-10.

This 5th article in the Natural Communities of Florida's Floodplains describes the common characteristics of these natural communities along Florida's rivers and differences resulting from the intermingling of the area's topology and the rivers' movements over time. Describing the value of these floodplains for native wildlife and timber, the author cautions that human manipulation of the natural water flow can be destructive.  The following sections describe the conditions impacting three varieties of floodplains: floodplain swamps, floodplain forests and floodplain marshes. For each floodplain type the author characterizes the general locations, the water conditions impacting the typical plant species, the unique soil conditions and the typical plant species in each of these floodplain types. Keywords: Kissimmee River, Lake Okeechobee, peat, swamps, marsh, rare plants 

   Duever, Linda.   1983.   Florida's Natural Communities: Inland Sand Ridges.   Palmetto 3 (3): 1-3, 10.

This article published in 1983 is the first in a series of 13 describing the FNAI's theories of the constantly changing, transitioning, growing natural commnities in Florida, and as such, the plant communities in the natural areas described in these articles might not be a completly precise description. By comparing the articles' theoretical  plant communities to actual field observations, the author points out, a naturalist might contribute information more accurate detail helpful to conservation efforts. This first article identifies and describes three inland sand ridge communities: sandhills, scrubs and xeric hammocks. For each of these natural communities, the article identifies the typical locations, topography, and soil conditions of each, lists the various plant communities, and if pertinent, describes the role of fire and the impact of human intervention on the land. Finally, for each of the three communities, typical plant species including any rare or endemic species other than those mentioned previously. Keywords: xeric, fire, human intervention, agriculture, pine, oak

   Duever, Linda.   1988.   Florida's Natural Communities: Mesic Hammock.   Palmetto 8 (2): 4-5.

The Mesic Hammocks described in this brief article exist throughout Florida and are identified as Upland Mixed Forest by FNAI. A description of the soil composition and a list of common tree species round out this article.

   Duever, Linda.   1986.   Florida's Natural Communities: Overwash Plains and Coastal Berms.   Palmetto 6 (1): 10-11.

This article describes some of the varied coastal communites that form along the active interface between sea and shore.

   Duever, Linda.   1984.   Florida's Natural Communities: Rocklands.   Palmetto 4 (2): 8-11.

This fourth article in the series describes Florida's natural communities found in South Florida: Pine Rocklands, Rockland Hammock, and Coastal Rock Barren. The first section describes three types of Pine Rockland found in southeast Florida: Keys' Pine Rocklands, Dade Pine Rocklands and Big Cypress Pine Rockland and identifies common characteristics like soil composition and other geographic characteristics impacting plantsincluding the role of fire. The final portion of the three Pine Rocklands identifies common shrubs, herbaceous plant, grass species and rare plants. The geographical characteristics of the Rockland Hammocks include hydrological elements, soil composition, and the impact of storms and canopy shade, and FNAI identifies 5 types of Rockland Hammocks in South Florida. Each of these five types--the Miami Ridge Hammock, the Keys' Hammock Forest, the Key's Hammock Thicket, a Cactus Hammock, and Thorn Scrub--may be characterized by their various plant communities and these descriptions are followed by a list of ther typical Rockland Hammock's woody species and epiphytes. The article published in 1984 includes a cautionary note about  residential development creating an extreme threat to Rockland Hammocks. A transitional area between either of these first two natural Rockland communities and a rocky shoreline forms the third natural Rockland Community: the Coastal Rock Barren. As with the previous types the article identifies the Coastal Rock Barren by its geographical characteristics and their impacts on its plant community. Again, FNAI breaks this area into three types by their plant communities--the Halophyte Rock Barren, the Cactus Barren, and a Strumpfia Barren--and lists their plant commnities. Keywords: Pine Rockland, Rockland Hammock, Coastal Rock Barren, Tropical plants, South Florida, critically endngered communities

   Duever, Linda.   1984.   Florida's Natural Communities: Seepage Communities.   Palmetto 4 (1): 1-2, 10-11.

This is the third article in a series describing plant communities. Seepage communities form along slopes where rain water drains through the soil until encountering less permeable soil consistency where moisture remains but no ponding occurs. These areas encourage formation of pitcher plant bogs. Further down slope when moisture dries out, shrub bogs replace pitcher plant bogs. The retention or loss of moisture happens often as a result of human intervention, events described in the article. Records of species are vague during this time concurrent with article publication, but Duever reasons that species of herbaceous plants and shrubs listed are probable species. Finally Duever desribes Baygall communities at the base of the slopes where water flowing down slope meets the consistently moist soil of the flatland where dense forests form. A final discussion of bogs clarifies differences between seepage bog and peat bogs and the plants they support.

   Duever, Linda.   1987.   Florida's Natural Communities: Wet Prairies.   Palmetto 7 (2): 6-7.

Wet prairies are wetlands that have water for 50 to 100 days annually and sandy soils. They are maintained by fire. Natural wet prairies have a diverse mix of species. Invasion by Melaleuca, overgrazing, fire suppression and shifts to winter burns are concerns.

   Boughton, Betsey Hermanson.   2008.   Florida's Rangelands: Areas of Conservation Value and Opportunities for Restoration.   Palmetto 25 (4): 12-15.

Author asserts that Florida ranchlands offer a significant opportunity to preserve and restore a vast diversity of native flora and fauna--some rare and endangered--and the unique ecosystems and plant communities where they currently exist and are now threatened. Boughton argues this position in her descriptions of the 10,500 acre Buck Island Ranch, home to the Archbold Biological Station and the MacArthur Agro-Ecology Research Station whose purpose is to study ranching's impact on our environment and how to balance South Florida's environmental health with a ranch's economic issues. This and other ranchland offers substantial land with rare Florida habitats containing the highest number of diverse plant species in North America including a number of rare and endangered species threatened by habitat loss through development, intense agricultural use, and vegetable farming. Preservation and restoration also protect native wildlife by providing buffer zones and connectivity to existing public prairies. Keywords: prairies, prairie restoration, rare plants, endangered plants, Florida ranchland

   McCartney, Chuck.   2017.   Florida's so-Called 'Butterfly Orchid'.   Palmetto 34 (1): 4-7.

Encyclia tampensis, a.k.a Florida butterfly orchid or onion orchid (for the shape of its pseudo-bulb), the origin of its names, and some of the history of how it came to get those names.. Keywords:  orchids, forests, swamps.

   Ward, Daniel B. and Robert T. Ing.   1995.   Florida's Ten Tallest Native Trees Species.   Palmetto 15 (3): 6-7.

   Means, Howard.   1984.   Florida's Venerable Naturalist.   Palmetto 4 (4): 5.

John Kunkel Small

   Smith, Mary Ellen.   1989.   Florida's Wildflowers.   Palmetto 9 (3): 9.

   Girard, Dennis.   2008.   Flowers Underfoot.   Palmetto 25 (3): 11.

A poem.

   Bissett, Bill.   1991.   FNPS 1991 Landscape Awards.   Palmetto 11 (2): 19-20.

As early as 1989, FNPS's activities included a landscape awards program, at times in conjunction with another native plant organizations or sponsors. The results of the annual landscaping awards have been reported in The Palmetto articles listed under Awards category. In 1991 the judges rewarded the preservation and restoration of nine residential and commercial properties. The overall winner was chosen for the complexity of the landscaping project and its maintenance of the 15 acre Pine Ridge Preserve home of Terry and Barbara Glancy in Homestead, Florida. The first place residential winners (a rare tie) included the residence of Ray and Janice Miller (Boynton Beach) and the residence of David and Nell Pretzch (Winter Haven). The second place residential winner was the home of Mr. and Mrs. William Radcliffe. The first place commercial property was the IMC reclamation office in Fort Lonesome for its xeric landscaping. The second place award went to Post Fountains, a 60 acre apartment complex in Orlando.   Keywords: Landscaping 

   Chellman, Pat.   1993.   FNPS 1993 Landscape Enhancement Awards.   Palmetto 13 (2): 16-17.

The list of 1993 Landscape Enhancement Awards for residential, commercial and chapter awards Overall and 1st Place Residential Landscape: The residence of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph K. Gordon (Stuart, FL); 2nd Place Residential Landscape Award: The residence of Ingrid Jimrusti (Davie, FL); 1st Place Commercial Landscape Award: Flamingo Bay Condiminiums (St. Petersburg, FL); 2nd Place Commercial Landscape Award: Windward Lakes Residential Development (Pompano Beach, FL); 1st Place Chapter Landscape Award: Pinellas County FNPS Chapter for Suncoast Trust Bank (St. Petersburg, FL); 2nd Place Chapter Landscape Award: Conradina Chapter for the Margsret Hames Nature Center (Palm Bay, FL) Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, awards

   Editor.   2003.   FNPS 2002 Landscape Awards.   Palmetto 22 (1): 2, 7-9, 22-23, back cover.

The 2002 Design with Natives Landscape Awards included the following professional and non-professional awards: Residential Non Professional 1st Place Award, Austin-Steuart Residence (Palm Bay, Florida); Residential Non-profesional 2nd Place Award, Cox Residence (Ponte Verdra, FL); Commercial Professional Award 1st Place, Dune Restoration (Collier County, Florida); Commercial Professional, 2nd Place Marina Gardens Luxury Town Home Project (Palm Beach Gardens, FL); Commercial Professional 3rd Place Award, Crane Colony Golf and Country Club (Fort Myers); Commercial Non-Professional 1st Place Award, Chiappini Farm Native Nursery (Melrose, FL); School Yard Professional 1st Place Award, Lemon Bay High School Auditorium (Charlotte County, FL); Institutional Professional 1st Place Award, Florida Keys Arboratum, University of Miami (Coral Gables, FL); Institutional Professional 2nd Place Award, UF IFAS, Gulf Coast Research & Educational Center (Bradenton, FL); Institutional Professional 3rd Place, Smithsonian Marine Ecosystem (Fort Pierce, FL); Institutional Non-profesional 1st Place Award, Florida Friends Native Garden at Administration Building, Lake Louisa State Park (Clermont, FL); Ecosystem Restoration Professional 1st Place Award, Deering Estate at Cutler Ecosystem Restoration, Miami-Dade County Park and Recreation Department (Miami, FL); Ecosystem Restoration Professional 2nd Place Award, Marjorie Stoneman Douglas Biscane Nature Center, Bear Cut Preserve (Key Biscayne, FL); Ecosystem Professional 3rd Place Award, Gulf Coastal Plain Ecosystem Partnership and Eglin Air Force Base, Okaloosa Darter Native Plant Community (Eglin Air Force Base, FL); Mitigation Professional 1st Place, City Of Hollywood Mapleridge Tree Protective Area (Hollywood, FL); Jury Award, Eglin Air Force Base and Gulf Coast Plain Ecosystem Partnership (Eglin Air Force Base, FL); Historic Landscape Non Professional1st Place Award, Seminole Master Gardeners, Florida and Southeast Natives Demonstration Garden (Sanford, FL); Historic Landscape Non-professional 2nd Place, Tropical Audubon Society Botanical Garden (Miami, FL); Keywords:  Awards, Landscape, 

   FNPS.   2007.   FNPS 2007 Landscape Awards.   Palmetto 24 (4): 8-11.

Descriptions and photographs of the 2007 FNPS landscape award winners.  Coe Visitor Center (Everglades National Park), Stoccardo Residence, Enchanted Forest Sanctuary, Ticknor Residence, Felts Audugon Preserve, Marilyn Smullen Residence, Circle B-Bar Reserve, Sharon Holding Residence. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   FNPS Landscape Committee.   2007.   FNPS 2007 Landscape Awards.   Palmetto 24 (4): 8-11.

The Fall 2007 Palmetto announced the results of FNPS 2007 Design with Natives landscape awards program. The announcement  identifies each catagory, the winner and the reasons the winner was chosen.  The award winners include the following: the Coe Visitor Center in the Everglades National Park, The Enchanted Forest Sanctuary Butterfly/Pollinator Garden (Titusville), the Eugene and Catherine Stoccardo Residence (Orlando), the Ticknor Residence (Orlando), Ugarte and Associates, Inc. (Palmetto), the Felts Audobon Preserve Restoration (Palmetto), the Marilyn Smullen Residence (New Port Richey), Circle B Bar Reserve (Polk County), and the Sharon Holding Residence (New Port Richey).  

   Wallace, Jane.   2009.   FNPS Chapter Grant Funds: Signage in a Native Plant Garden.   Palmetto 26 (4): 11.

A Mangrove Chapter project at the Cedar Point Environmental Park with three primary objectives:  create an exhibit of Florida native and endangered plants; install larval food plants for native butterflies; and provide interpretive signs and materials to educate the public Keywords:  gardening, demonstration garden.

   Lantz, Don.   1995.   FNPS History Revisited.   Palmetto 15 (3): 10-14.

   Lantz, Don.   1995.   FNPS History Revisted.   Palmetto 15 (3): 10-12.

   Bissett, William.   1992.   FNPS Landscape Awards.   Palmetto 12 (2): 16-17.

In 1992 the overall landscaping awards winner was a commercial property, home of the dental office of Dennis Carmody whom the judges described as the landscape and office's driving force (Rockledge). Residential awards went to the residence of Don and Mary Jane Gordanier (Satellite Beach)--1st place; the residential landscape of Gary Peterson--2nd place; and the residential demonstration gardens of Steve Riefler. Awards in the commercial property catergory included the 1st prize winner Highland Ridge housing development (Highlands County), the second place winner, Windsor Polo Club Nature Trail  landscaping along Highway A1A and the 3rd place was awarded to Lyon's Gate (Coconut Creek) for the landscaping of their retention ponds. The Tree Tops Park (Browerd County) won first place in the institutional awards category for its complete transformation; the second place winner was awarded to Cocho-Okee Park (Post Village) for the renewal of its landscape.

   FNPS Landscape Committee.   2009.   FNPS Landscape Awards.   Palmetto 26 (3): 4-5, 8-9.

2009 announcements of the 2009 Design with Natives Landscape awards included First Place Residential, Homeowner Design, Bierly Residence (Homosassa, FL); First Place Commercial Landscape Award to Amy's Organic Gourmet Market & Restaurant (Stuart, FL); First Place Institutional Landscape Award, Town of Ponce Inlet, (Volusia County, FL) ); First Place Mitigation Landscape Award, Mitigation Park, (Fort Myers, FL); First Place Ecosystem Restoration Award, McCay Creek Greenway Natural Area (Largo, FL); Second Place Ecosystem Restoration Landscape Award, Hutchinson Island Restoration Project (Jenson Beach, FL); Second Place Residential Landscape Award, Professional Design, Mills Residence (Port Salerno, FL); Second Place Landscape Award Summer Camp Beach Club (St. James Island, FL). Keywords: Landscape awards

   Lantz, Peggy S.   1988.   FNPS Member Wins National Landscape Award..   Palmetto 8 (2): 3.

Brightman Logan recieved a national award for the native landscaping of the nearly 20 acre of lakes in a natural wetland area desisgned by his business Central Florida Native Flora and creating a living wetland habitat for nesting birds and wildlife. He recieved the award at the White House from Nancy Reagan. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, wetland habitats.

   Lantz, Peggy.   1989.   FNPS Members in the News.   Palmetto 9 (1): 11.

   Brooks, Jane.   1983.   FNPS Policy on Environmental Activism.   Palmetto 3 (4): 9.

   Editor.   2004.   FNPS Research Endowment Program: a Sample of Projects from 2003-2004.   Palmetto 23 (1): 15, 17.

Palmetto announcement of 2003-2004 recipients of FNPS's Research Endowment and the subject matter of their research. 2003 recipients include the following: Eliane Norman and Sandra Carnival on the demography and phenology of Ophioglossum palmatum; Ashley B. Morris on Illicium parviflorum Michx. ex Vent. and its role in the horticultural trade; Cindy Bennington on the genetics of gender fleibility in Passionflower; Philip A. Gonsiska on the effects of invasive exotic trees on the seedling demography of Catopsis berteroniana; Jenny Schafer on the demography and ecology of Paronychia chartacea. The 2004 recipients include the following: Herbert "Tug" Kesler on the evaluation and conservation of Pinguicula ionantha, Godfrey's Butterwort; Tania Kim on trophic cascades and the influence of herbivory and predition on after fire succession; Brian J. Sidoti on the morphological and molecular systematics of Tillandsia fasciculata complex and the biogeographical and evolutionary implcations. Keywords: endowments, native plant research, Ophioglossum palmatum, Illicium parviflorum Michx. ex Vent., passionflower and gender flexibility, Catopsis berteroniana, Paronychia characea, Godfrey's Butterwort, Trophic Cascades, Tillandsia fasciculata

   Coile, Nancy C.   1992.   Food Plants Native to Americas.   Palmetto 12 (4): 3-5.

   Hammer, Roger.   1998.   Footloose in the Fakahatchee: A Longing for Wilderess.   Palmetto 18 (3): 5-6, 11.

A brief history of the Fakahatchee, from logging to preservation is presented. The extraordinary flora and fauna, including Lepahthopsis melananthat, Polyrrhiza lindenii, and Vanilla phaeantha are discussed.

   Albritton, Ken.   1998.   Foraging for Pine Needles.   Palmetto 18 (3): 11-10.

The author discusses the problem of acquiring pine needles for mulch at reasonable cost. He prefers to scavange from trees overhanging residential streets. He points out that scavanging is hard labor (and he owns a truck!). His technique results in acquisition of needles worth $1000 or more without ecosystem damage (editorial comment).  Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Austin, Daniel F.   2007.   Fox-tail Millets - Bristly Foods.   Palmetto 24 (3): 12-14.

A duscussion of fox-tail millet, Setaria parviflora, and its former, and maybe current, use in cooking. Keywords:  Florida natives, ethnobotany.

   Bryson, Charles T., Nancy C. Coile, and Jeffrey H. Rettig.   1998.   Friend or Foe?.   Palmetto 18 (1): 16-19.

Cyperus compressus.

   Hammer, Roger.   2013.   Fringed orchids of August - a journey to North Florida.   Palmetto 30 (1): 4-6.

People don’t usually think of orchids when they envision North Florida, yet nearly half of Florida’s more than 100 native orchids occur in the northern third of the state. Journey along with Roger Hammer and discover the botanical delights he has in store. Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Albritton, Ken.   1999.   Garden Budgeting.   Palmetto 19 (3): 20.

Somewhat outdated but still valuable.  Natives are more available today than they were in 1999 and costs of various activities needed for creating a native garden have shifted with time.   Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Norwood, Mary Lou and Craig Huegel.   1992.   Gardening for Hummingbirds.   Palmetto 12 (4): 14-15.

Keywords:  Wildlife, Hummingbirds

   Mann, Frank.   1989.   Get Involved.   Palmetto 9 (1): 13.

A list of eight ways to become involved in the politics of saving native plant communities.

   Drake, Jim.   2010.   Ghost s of the Hammocks: Voyria parasitica.   Palmetto 27 (1): 15.

Voyria parasitica, a rare Florida species in the gentian family Keywords:  endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Austin, Daniel.   1997.   Glades Indians and the Plants they Used.   Palmetto 17 (2): 7-10.

Keywords:  ethnobotany.

   Hammer, Roger L.   1999.   Goatsfoot, Maypop & Love-in-a-Mist, the Native and Naturalized Passionflowers of Florida.   Palmetto 19 (4): 18-20.


   Sathre, Eric.   1989.   Going Pitcher Plant Hunting.   Palmetto 9 (3): 5.

Keywords: endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Stewart, Kristine.   2001.   Gold Mine of the Air, the Spanish Moss Industry of Florida.   Palmetto 21 (1): 12-13.

   Ward, Daniel B.   2010.   Golden-dewdrop Duranta erecta (Verbenaceae).   Palmetto 27 (1): 10-12.

As of 2023, this species is concidered to be non-native.

   Osorio, Rufino.   1993.   Goldenrod Fern.   Palmetto 13 (4): 18.

Pityrogramma trifoliata

   Iverson, Grace B.   2000.   Grace Blanchard Iverson, personal statement.   Palmetto 20 (2): 14-15.

An interview with Cynthia Plockelman.

   Riefler, Steve.   1993.   Grafting as an Aid to Growing Native Plants.   Palmetto 13 (3): 16.

Selecting the rootstock and making the graft. Keywords:  gardening, propagation.

   Yarlett, Lewis L.   1996.   Grass Roots the Unseen Resource.   Palmetto 16 (1): 19.

This short article discusses the importance of the grass family primarily because of the work that happens underground by the roots and rhizomes rather than by the more recognizable above-ground blades.  Keywords: siltation, water pollution, erosion, grass trimming

   Hall, David W..   1996.   Grasses.   Palmetto 16 (1): 4.

   Starr, Wesley G.   1988.   Green Eyes: Study by Backyard Botanist.   Palmetto 8 (4): 4-7.

   Lyrene, Paul.   1982.   Growing Native Blueberries.   Palmetto 2 (3): 4.

Keywords:  gardening.

   Hall, David W.   1987.   Hairy Wicky.   Palmetto 7 (3): 16.

A species profile of Kalmia hirsuta.

   Putz, Francis E.   1998.   Halt the Homogeocene: A Frightening Future Filled with Too Few Species.   Palmetto 18 (1): 7-9.

With more an more people moving to Florida, incentives are needed to encourage maintenance of native species and natural ecosystem processes, especially fire. Without these we are doomed to a future of disturbed ecosystems, less biodiversity, and expanses of invasive exotics. Keywords:  population, fire exclusion.

   Austin, Daniel.   1983.   Hammocks.   Palmetto 3 (1): 4.

Discusses the origin of the term "hammock" for Florida's southern hardwood forests. Keywords:  plant communities, plant community classification.

   Hammer, Roger.   1997.   Have We Lost the Young Palm Orchid.   Palmetto 17 (1): 8-9.

Tropidia polystachya Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, extirpated, extinct.

   Huegel, Craig.   1993.   Hawthorns.   Palmetto 13 (2): 4-5.

Hawthorns, Crataegus spp. Keywords:  Plant profiles

   Lantz, Peggy S..   1982.   Henry Nehrling, Pioneer Florida Horticulturist.   Palmetto 2 (3): 1-3.

   Langeland, Ken.   1999.   Herbicides: Use 'Em, Don't Abuse 'Em, to Protect Our Native Flora.   Palmetto 19 (1): 16-17, 22.

   Johnson, Ann F.   2006.   Here's Looking at You Kid.   Palmetto 24 (1): 11-13, 15.

Imperrilled plants of the western Florida panhandle::  The lilies including Lilium iridollae, L. supurbum and L michauxii.

   Deyrup, Mark.   1999.   Hidden Patterns in the Florida Scrub.   Palmetto 19 (2): 8, 11.

Naturalist/author wonders what mysteries exist beneath the surface soil of a Florida Scrub. His thoughts wander over the algae on the scrub surface and ponders what algae species the scrub holds, how it regenerates when disturbed by wildlife and what goes on under the surface in the algal layer. His musings turn to the trees and asks how the tangled mat of roots interact, whether they communnicate and whether they share or compete for resources needed to survive. He leaves these questions unanswered. Keywords:  plant communities, ecosystems, scrub

   LaRue, Diane and Gayle Martin.   2010.   Historical and Current Occurrence of Endangered Schizaea pennula at Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida.   Palmetto 27 (2): 8-11.

Ray fern.  Name has been changed to Actinostachys pennula Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Walker, Karen J.   1997.   Historical Ecology of the Southeastern Longleaf Pine.   Palmetto 17 (2): 16-19.

This article examines the role of humans in the disappearance of much of the old-growth longleaf pines throughout the Southeastern Coastal Plain states and concludes that much of this loss began with the arrival of European immigrants in Virginia during the 1700s with an initial large loss attributed to lessons leaned from indigenous Americans about burning pine forests and using new growth for forage for their free-roaming farm animals and later for longleaf pine by-products like resin and tar. The article follows the growth of longleaf pine's use that resulted from means of harvesting and transportating the logs/lumber advanced and the labor force moved south into Florida in the 1920s. Environmental damage ended much of the loss, but the final blow to the longleaf pine forests came from a popular animated bear named Smokey and a cultural belief that prevention of forest fires was a priority and the land once an area dedicated to longleaf forests in Florida was better used for cattle grazing and citrus growth. Keywords: reforestation, Pinus palustris, Hickey's Creek, Hickey Creek Park, Smokey Bear

   Lantz, Peggy.   1985.   Holiday Decorations with Native Plants.   Palmetto 5 (4): 4-5.

   Lantz, Peggy S.   1987.   Holiday Wreath with Native Plants.   Palmetto 7 (4): 9.

   Austin, Daniel.   2001.   Hoop Vine: The Plant That Wasn’t There.   Palmetto 20 (4): 10-12.

Hoop vine, Trichostigma octandrum,  is an unusual native (or is it?) found only when it wants to be. With a tradition of medicinal and ornamental use in many countries, hoop vine is colorful in more ways than one. Keywords:  ethnobotany.

   Editor.   2002.   Hope on the Horizon for Globally Endangered Lakela's Mint - Compiled from USFWS press release & email from Jody Bonet.   Palmetto 21 (4): 9.

Efforts to save the Lakela's mint are underway with cooperation from St. Lucie County, FNPS's Lakela Mint Chapter, USFWS, and Bok Tower.  Keywords: Endangered species.

   Ward, Daniel B.   1989.   How Many Plant Species Are Native to Florida?,.   Palmetto 9 (4): 3-5.

   Ward, Daniel B. and Robert T. Ing.   1994.   How old is a Silver Palm?,.   Palmetto 14 (2): 6-7.

Coccothrinax argentata

   Bissett, Nancy.   1990.   How to Encourage Roadside Wildflowers.   Palmetto 10 (3): 8-10.

In 1990 Horticulturalist Nancy Bissett spoke to a Florida Wildflower Conference sponsored by Monsanto with the aim of ecouraging attendees from Florida's DOT and Florida Garden Clubs' representatives challenging them to create a roadside wildflower plan to encourage the growth of Florida's native wildflower and establish a roadside corridor encouraging the spread of native flowers. The article is an urgent plea to Florida Native Plant Society members to write to Florida DOT Field Offices. She uses the notes she generated in preparation for her speech to the Wildflower Conference in writing her direct appeal to FNPS. Key Words: Wildflowers, Monsanto, FNPS, Roadside Wildflowers

   Mock, Terrance K.   1981.   How to get Developers to Wear 'White Hats'.   Palmetto 1 (3): 8.

   Lyrene, Paul.   1982.   How To Grow Blueberries From Seed.   Palmetto 2 (4): 10-11.

Keywords:  gardening, propagation.

   Brown, Rob.   1981.   How to Kill Perennial Grass.   Palmetto 1 (3): 5.

Grass specialist Rob Brown offers unique insight into why "good" native grass populations preferred as forage by wildlife are smaller than less desireable wire grasses based on an article from an Australian Extension newsletter. Keywords: invasive species, pest plants, grass

   Bettinger, Edith.   1990.   How to Know Some of The Common Ferns of Central Florida.   Palmetto 11 (1): 6-8.

Keywords:  Plant identification.

   Howard, Frances.   1982.   How to Save a Sand Dune.   Palmetto 2 (2): 1-2.

Explains the structure of a beach and sand dunes and the role of native plants in the creation and maintenance of a sand dune. also describes successful methods for the propoagation or transplantion of native plants that build and hold sand dunes. 

   Riefler, Steve.   1982.   How to Sprout a Hickory.   Palmetto 2 (2): 9.

Keywords:  gardening, propagation.

   Davis, Joanne.   1991.   How To Win An Environmental Referendum.   Palmetto 11 (1): 9.

   Taylor, Walter Kingsley.   2011.   Hunting Wildflowers at Tosohatchee WMA.   Palmetto 28 (3): 8-9.

   Duryea, Mary.   1993.   Hurricane Andrew Damage to Urban Forest: A Preliminary Evaluation.   Palmetto 13 (3): 18.

Article sumarizes damage done to trees after Hurricane Andrew. Trees identified by species and the degree of damages by severity. The survey ranged from Fort Lauderdale, Florida to Homestead, Florida. More study is needed in terms of tree survivability. Recommendations for action incuded.

   Mingea, Mike and Patty Phares.   1992.   Hurricane Report.   Palmetto 12 (3): 12-14.

The FNPS Executive Director and the Dade County Chapter president each report about the damage to in the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Andrew in the South Florida area. Mingea describes the efforts of native plant nursery owners to help other owners whose nurseries were destroyed and the devestation to both native and non-native plants and to property on their drive through the devestation including the damaged suffered by South Florida native plant nurseries they went to help with clean-up. In turn, Phares describes the damage to the homes and gardens of the Dade County's FNPS Chapter members.  Both authors request help from available volunteers, and include an information sheet for those willing to help South Florida's native plant nurseries and FNPS members, demonstrating the community FNPS members have established. Keywords: Hurricane Andrew, Volunteerism, Dade Coutny FNPS, hurricane damage, FNPS community

   Kohfeldt, Nancy.   2006.   I Remember Rosemary.   Palmetto 23 (3): 12-13, 15.

Ruminating on the ecology of Florida rosemary (Ceratiola ericoides) and its recovery after disturbance and development issues affecting it..

   Lyrene, Paul.   1995.   In Defense of Vaccinium elliottii.   Palmetto 15 (4): 9-11.

   Editor.   1996.   In Memory of Harold J. Nett.   Palmetto 16 (4): 5.

   Iverson, Grace B.   2002.   In What Way a Mentor (letter).   Palmetto 21 (2): 9.

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1991.   Indian Lemonade.   Palmetto 11 (3): 7.

Shining sumac, Rhus copallina.

   Dixon, Wayne N..   1985.   Insect Pests and Native Trees.   Palmetto 5 (1): 9-10.

   Hinkle, Ross C.   1994.   Integration of Environmental Education with Ecological Research.   Palmetto 14 (3): 10-11.

Hinkle make the case for why Brevard County's environmental education should be paired with actual ecological research at all levels of education from K-8 teachers to students and teachers from high school level to PhD candidates. Keywords: environmental education, ecological research, K-12 teachers, post-secondary students

   Minno, Mark and Maria.   1993.   Interdependence.   Palmetto 13 (2): 6-7.

   VanHoek, Carmel.   1992.   Inventorying McKethan Lake Recreation Area.   Palmetto 12 (3): 10-11.

Describes an inventory of McKethan Lake Recreation Area in Hernando County.

   Durando, Joe.   1995.   It’s Seed Harvest Time!.   Palmetto 15 (3): 8.

Fall is the peak seed gather time. Dry fruit should be broken apart. Most seeds should be planted immediately. Some seeds need to be exposed to light, cold, or scarified. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, propagation.

   Foley, Nadine.   2001.   Jean Daubenmire, 2001 Green Palmetto Award for Science.   Palmetto 21 (1): 9.

A brief biography of Jean Daubenmire's work in Florida after her husband's "retirement" in his botanical studies with her as his "helper" and their move to Lake County, Florida where they continued working to support Florida's native plants both in Florida's natural lands and as a Master Gardener in home gardens. Keywords: Science awards, Master gardener, Discovery Garden

   Weekley, Carl.   2006.   Jewels of the Ridge: 20 imperiled plants of the Lake Wales Ridge.   Palmetto 24 (1): 4-7, 11.

   Durako, Michael, and Fritz Wettstein.   1994.   Johnson's Seagrass: The Rodney Dangerfield of Seagrass.   Palmetto 14 (3): 3-5.

Johnson's seagrass, Halophila johnsonii, is a small rare seagrass that occurs in lagoons along the southeast coast of Florida. It is most abundant in the hazardous environmetnst of developed ocean inlets. It has no known seed production, and storms and channel dredging can eliminate entire populations. It differs from other seagrasses by a number of characteristics described in this article. Illustrations and contrasts with similar species are provided. Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Moyers, Susan Boro.   1997.   Julia F Morton - 1912-1996.   Palmetto 17 (2): 14.

   Donaldson, Cameron.   1999.   Keep our Sabals Safe from Harsh Prunning.   Palmetto 19 (3): 4.

Sabal palmetto. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Smith, Elizabeth.   2013.   Keeping a nature journal.   Palmetto 30 (1): 8-11.

No matter the purpose, sketching and note-taking sharpens observation skills, improves drawing abilities, and helps create new connections. Learn how Elizabeth Smith documents the natural world with simple tools and creates beauty in the process.

   Workman, Dick.   1997.   Kitchenware from Wood: Safe through the Ages.   Palmetto 17 (2): 24, 30.

   Joyce, Rick and Dave Feagles.   2010.   Land Management Review: Babcock Ranch Preserve.   Palmetto 27 (4): 13.

Authors offer a brief review of their experience as team members of the 73,239 acre Babcock Ranch Preserve's land management review of one of the largest state purchases of conservation land. Keywords: land management, conservation land, Babcock Ranch Preserve

   Huegel, Craig.   2010.   Landscape Design: Gardening for the Birds Part II.   Palmetto 27 (3): 4-7.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, birds.

   Bissett, William.   1991.   Landscape Designs with Native Plants.   Palmetto 11 (4): 3-5.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Pais, David.   1992.   Landscape Ecology.   Palmetto 12 (2): 3-5.

David Pais's premise in his 1992 article about residential landscape design is that the traditional design's focus on controlling and dominating the natural world in our home landscapes destroys the wild, creative, and spontaneous nature both of our native plants and of ourselves. Worse, although the trend of native plant gardening has made progress, its lexicon of technical words is confusing and that vocabulary adopted by FNPS has caused misunderstanding among the general public and is inadequate and too rigid to convey the nuances of context. The first half of his article explains his understanding of these issues. His solution is a revision to the technical terminology continuum of native verses exotic species with a revision and clarification of the associated technical terms and a more fluid concept of what constitutes wildness in the home landscape. KEYWORDS: landscaping, natives, exotics, invasives, backyard habitats,

   Editor.   1996.   Landscapes Featuring Florida Native Plants: Urban & Suburban - Formal & Informal.   Palmetto 16 (3): 10-12.

Keywords:  Landscaping

   Mayfield III, Albert E..   2007.   Laurel Wilt: A Serious Threat to Redbay and Other Related Native Plants.   Palmetto 24 (3): 8-11.

A non-native disease that is killing members of the Lauraceae family. Keywords: invasive species, pest plants.

   Betsch, Marvyne "The Beach Lady".   1987.   Let the Lawn Mower Rust!.   Palmetto 7 (4): 16.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Editor.   1988.   Letters.   Palmetto 8 (1): 10.

   Coile, Nancy C.   1992.   Little-Leaf Redroot.   Palmetto 12 (1): 10-11.

Ceanothus microphyllus 

   Austin, Dan.   2003.   Lizard's Tail.   Palmetto 22 (1): .

Sarurus cernuus.

   Pais, David.   1991.   Loblolly Bay.   Palmetto 11 (1): 10.

   Niederhofer, Meg.   1997.   Local Ordinaces Can Protect Community Trees.   Palmetto 17 (3): 15, 18, 22.

   Bacchus, Sydney T.   1991.   Looking Beyond Hydrology: The Creation and Restoration of Wetlands, Part 2.   Palmetto 11 (4): 9-12.

Keywords:  wetland creation, wetland restoration.

   Bates, Judy.   1982.   Low Cost, Low Care.   Palmetto 2 (4): 3-4.

Keywords: native lanscapeing, gardening

   Honychurch, Penelope N.   1997.   Lowly Bidens Alba Serves People as Well as Butterflies.   Palmetto 17 (2): 11.

Describes Bidens alba's characteristics, its natural habitat. includes a list of common English and Creole names, and reported human uses of the plant Keywords:  Bidens alba, description, human uses, ethnobotany

   Osorio, Rufino.   1993.   Lyre-Leaved Sage.   Palmetto 13 (3): 9.

Salvia lyrata.  A description of lyre-leaved sage and it's habitat and cultivation.

   Hannahs, Eve.   1986.   Malachite, Atala, White Peacock.   Palmetto 6 (2): 9.

Writer details the physical appearance of the larval and adult stages, the range, and the host plant for each of  three butterflies (Malachite, Atala, and White Peacock) and their unique Florida locales. Keywords: butterfly larvae, larval host plants, caterpillars, 

   Evink, G.L.; G.L. Henry and J.A. Lewis.   1983.   Management of Native Vegetation Along Highway Rights-of-Way.   Palmetto 3 (2): 9.

Keywords:  native landscaping, transportation.

   Trebatoski, JoAnne, Roger Clark and Rick Joyce.   1998.   Manatee Park Habitats Project: A Dream Becomes Reality.   Palmetto 18 (4): 16-17, 19, 23.

The Coccoloba Chapter joins forces with Lee County to recreate native habitats at Manatee park. The article discusses the process of creating agreements, designing the habitats, and implementing the design. Sharing talents, resources, and energy with many agencies and people created a synergy that lifted spirits and accomplished a shared drean in a short time.

   Zarillo, Kim.   2000.   Margaret Hames, an interview.   Palmetto 20 (1): 20-21.

   Mercadante, Ben and Peter NeSmith.   1998.   Marion 1: Restoration of the Natural Landscape.   Palmetto 18 (4): 8-10.

   Norman, Eliane M.   1986.   Mary Francis Baker (1876-1941) Wild Flower Enthusiast.   Palmetto 6 (4): 9.

   Huegel, Craig.   2020.   Meadows for Home Landscapes: More Than Just Wildflowers.   Palmetto 36 (1): 4-7.

The zeal to use native wildflowers to create pollinator gardens falls far short of meeting the maximum value that a pollinator garden is capable of providing. Learn how adding native grasses increases the diversity of plants and pollinators.  Includes a discussion on grasses and wilflowers instead of lawns. Keywords:  Meadows, Landscaping

   Moyers, Susan Boro.   1997.   Medicinal Plants of Florida.   Palmetto 17 (2): 12-15.

   Editor.   2018.   Meet Juliet Rynear, Executive Director of FNPS.   Palmetto 34 (3): 2.

Juliet Rynear became the first employee of FNPS at the beginning of 2018.  While others had held the title of Executive Director, they were contractors.   This article provides a summary of her bio.  At the time she was hired, she had already established a track record with FNPS, first as a volunteer who led many rare plant rescue efforts, then as a contractor (Executive Assistant), and then becoming the first FNPS employee.

   Hammer, Roger L.   2017.   Memories of a Champion.   Palmetto 34 (3): 8-9.

A specific cowhorn orchid (Cyrtopodium punctatum) was one of Everglades National Park's most spectacular blooming plants until Hurricane Irma raged across Florida in 2017. Roger Hammer looks back at his history of orchid hunting in the park, finding a huge cowhorn orchid (the one in the article), and revisiting it after hurricanes until its loss in 2017.

   Hammer, Roger.   2018.   Milkvines of Florida.   Palmetto 34 (4): 4-7.

There are six native Florida wildflowers commonly called milkvines for their milky sap and vining growth habit. Roger Hammer examines the species and their interesting history.  The genera of milkvines in Florida include Chthamalia, Gonolobus, and Matelea. The article discusses their similarities and differences and where they are found.  Several are considered to be rare (state-listed).  

   Austin, Dan.   2002.   Milkworts.   Palmetto 21 (2): 10-11.

Polygala spp. Keywords:  Florida natives, ethnobotany.

   Hall, David.   1986.   Mimosa Vine.   Palmetto 6 (2): 8-9.

An early description of Mimosa strigillosa from 1986 details the roots of the plant's botanical name, its native range, botanical characteristics, seed collection and propagation techniques, and how the plant might be best used from a 1986 perspective.

   Osorio, Rufino.   1991.   Miniature Native Plants: Lindernia grandiflora.   Palmetto 11 (2): 6.

   Osorio, Rufino.   1991.   Miniature Native Plants: Stenandrium dulce var. floridanum.   Palmetto 11 (1): 3.

   Putz, Francis E. (Jack).   2013.   Mockernut Hickory: A Hard Nut to Crack.   Palmetto 30 (4): 8-9,15.

One of six hickory species native to Florida, mockernut (Carya tomentosa) is now scarce, the victim of over-logging and fire suppression. Jack Putz takes a long view of the mockernut, from its use as a foodstuff by pre-Columbian residents of Florida to its status in the present day.

   Austin, Dan.   2002.   Moonvine.   Palmetto 21 (4): 10-11, 15.

Ipomoea alba. Keywords:  Florida natives, ethnobotany.

   Oliver, J. Douglas.   1994.   More Exotic Pests: Mile-a-Minute Weed.   Palmetto 14 (2): 17-18.

Keywords: invasive species, pest plants.

   Lindquist, Jo Jo.   1996.   More Grasses for the Landscape.   Palmetto 16 (1): 7-8.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Poole, Richard and Christine Brown.   2008.   More Nitrogen Leached from Landscape Plantings than Lawns: A critique of a University of Florida experiment.   Palmetto 25 (4): 11.

Points out that over-fertilization of landscape plantings can be even more polluting that grass fertilization. Keywords: landscaping.

   Martin, H.W.   1994.   More on Beautyberry.   Palmetto 14 (1): 5-6.

Beautyberry, Callicarpa americana.  Landscape uses.  Restoration. Parts out of date.

   Norman, Eliane M. and David Clayton.   1982.   More on PawPaws.   Palmetto 2 (4): 5.

Asimina spp.

   Somerville, Evelyn.   1991.   More on School Gardens.   Palmetto 11 (3): 12.

Describes the involvement of community plant groups including the Boca Raton Garden Club and FNPS organizing plant/wildflower-related activities for students at the Calusa County Elementary School. Activities included the establishment of a student gardening club, Arbor Day tree plantings, and the planting of a butterfly garden. Keywords:  gardening, education, community involvement

   Foster, Bert T.   1983.   More On Spanish Moss.   Palmetto 3 (1): 6.

   Mullins, Stephen.   1993.   Moving Joewood Trees.   Palmetto 13 (2): 8-9.

Jacquinia keyensis. Keywords:  gardening.

   McCartney, Chuck.   1997.   Mrs. Britton's Shadow Witch, Ponthieva Brittoniae.   Palmetto 17 (1): 10-11.

Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Clark, Kerry B.   1994.   Multimedia in Natural History Education.   Palmetto 14 (4): 10.

Areticle outlines the 1994 potential for the use of multimedia technology in terms of both storage and delivery of vast amounts of information and the loclization of information at lower costs of publication. Keywords: multimedia, technology, information storage, cost

   Ward, Daniel B. and Robert T. Ing.   2001.   National Champions Awaiting Discovery.   Palmetto 20 (1): 8-9.

   Stibolt, Ginny.   2011.   Native Container Gardens.   Palmetto 28 (4): 8-11.

Keywords:  gardening.

   Huegel, Craig.   2008.   Native Gardening for the Birds.   Palmetto 25 (1): 12-15.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, wildlife, birds.

Ward, Daniel B..   2004.   Native or Nos: Studies of problematic species mound-lily Yuscca Yucca gloriosa [AGAVACEAE).   Palmetto 22 (3): 6-8.

Trace the recorded history of this plant in Florida and find out whether early botanists were right or wrong. As of 2023, this species is considered to be native and is state endagered.

   Lippincott, Carol.   2001.   Native Pine Beetle a Problem, But Not an Emergency.   Palmetto 21 (1): 14-15.

   Hannahs, Eve A.   1984.   Native Plants and Butterflies.   Palmetto 4 (3): 16.

Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, butterfly nectar plants.

   Day, Robert A.   1994.   Native Plants and the Indian River Lagoon. A view from a different perspective (or a walk on the wet side).   Palmetto 14 (3): 11.

This brief article addresses the establishment of the Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program and the rationale for the choice of protecting, enhancing and restoring the underwater seagrasses as its main focus during the initial 5 year funding of this program. Keywords: National Estuary Program, submerged aquatic vegetation, seagrasses

   Desmon, Lee.   2002.   Native Plants at Selby Gardens.   Palmetto 21 (3): 6-7.

   LaRue, Diane.   2012.   Native Plants Common to Florida and Nova Scotia.   Palmetto 29 (2): 12-15.

The author examines how 2 regions of North America so far apart in distance and different in climates can have so many plants in common. She identifies the various differences and similarities in geography, climate/weather and population/development that, over time, have impacted the existence of these common plant species. She details each region's geographic characterisitcs, their changes over 10-12 centuries,and how some of the plants growing in more temperate areas of Nova Scotia migrated south as far as Florida and how Florida's plants also found in the more temperent zones of the Atlantic Coastal Plains migrated north to Nova Scotia. In migrating from Nova Scotia south or Florida north to Nova Scotia, plants with more general habitat needs were more adaptable and more common than those plants with very specific needs and less able to adapt were more rare. Blueberries, for example, which grew across a wide variety of Florida ecosystems were more able to survive in unfamiliar places. keywords: climate, climate change, weather, ecosystems, plant migration

   Gilbert, Julie.   1988.   Native Plants For Central Florida Landscapes.   Palmetto 8 (1): 9.

Suggestions for native trees and shrubs that adapt well to urban landscapes. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Herndon, Alan.   1985.   Native Plants for Fire Protection.   Palmetto 5 (4): 6-7.

   Craig, Robert.   1987.   Native Plants Reduce Water Needs.   Palmetto 7 (4): 11.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Huegel, Craig and Lisa Hoefler-Boing.   2017.   Native plants, sustainability and Rosebud Continuum.   Palmetto 34 (2): 4-7.

The Rosebud Continuum is a public exhibition of sustainable living practices. It will serve as a classroom and a model for a wide variety of methods designed to reduce our footprint and make space for other living creatures. Native plants are part of the plan.

   Wettstein, Fritz.   1994.   Native Plantsman Profile-Charles E. Salter.   Palmetto 14 (3): 8.

Presents an interview with early FNPS member Charles Salter.

   Stibolt, Ginny.   2020.   Natives for Home Landscapes: Wax Myrtle (Morella cerifera).   Palmetto 36 (1): 2, 15.

Wax myrtle in the home landscape.

   Urban, Peg.   2010.   Natives in Action.   Palmetto 27 (1): 8-10.

Photographs of native wildlife using native plants.

   Smith, Elizabeth.   1993.   Natural Dyes from Florida Native Plants.   Palmetto 13 (3): 12-15.

Describes the use of plants as sources of dyes through history with an emphasis how to use Florida native plants as dyes. Species include red maple (tan), live oak (dusty rose or gray), pokeberry (deep rose), beach sunflower (greenish-beige or tan), Coreopsis (yellow).

   Hart, Robin.   1993.   Natural Landscaping vs. Mowing Ordinances.   Palmetto 13 (1): 8-9.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, policy.

   Brownscomb, Richard.   2017.   Nature in Broward: The Silent Crisis of Local Rare Species Extinction.   Palmetto 35 (1): 12-15.

Discusses the problem of rare species with small local populations gradually becoming more and more at risk of extinction in urbanizing areas. Keywords:  Rare and endangered species, extinction

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1990.   Nuts to you!.   Palmetto 10 (4): 13.

Includes hickories, beechnuts, chinquapins, acorns, pinenuts, basswod,bluebeech, groundnuts, coconuts and others..

   Austin, Dan.   2003.   Oaks.   Palmetto 22 (4): 4.

Article captures the value of oaks to Western European inhabitant and how their value and uses impacted the oak population in North America and catalogs a lexicon of words uses refering to the various Quercus spp. and their uses associated with the cultures, countries and spiritual beliefs throughout Western Europe, Mediterranean countries and the Americas with special attention to how the indigenous people of North America and more specifically Florida used oaks for building structures, creating and decorating furniture, in cooking and in producing oil.    Keywords:  Florida natives. Oaks, Quercus, ethnobotany

   Beriault, John C.   1990.   Observations on the Vegetative Community of the Beach Dune Ridge North of Wiggins Pass, Northern Collier County.   Palmetto 10 (4): 6-7, 17.

A group from the Collier County FNPS Chapter went on a field trip to the Lely-Barefoot Beach sand dune located on the border of Collier and Lee Counties in on Florida's southwest coast on the Gulf of Mexico. John Beriault's article captures what the group learned and observed of the sand dune and its plant community. The resulting article is divided into three segments: a description of the dune's location, composition and the daily changes, the result of both weather conditions and human intervention; a detailed description of the dune's size and structure; and a compilation of plants the group observed on their visit. The dune structure is divided into five zones, each paralleling the coastline. The zone closest to the Gulf--the beach zone composed mostly of fine quartz beach sand and crushed shells--slopes up toward the east and ends at a cut marking the highest tidal point. Unprotected from weather and the tides, it has few permanent plants although seeds caught up in the line of seaweed and other sea detritus emerge temporarily and the ocassional vine winds its way down into the beach zone. The second area is the fore-dune extending from the high tide cut further east above the beach toward the dune's crest, the third and highest area. The crest length is an arbitrary distance of about 15 feet on either side of the dune's highest point to the east and west. From the crest the back-dune slopes steeply down to the fifth zone, the mangrove swamp, although technically not a part of the sand dune because it has a completely different soil composition. The beach zone has limited plants; however, an occassional white mangrove seedlings emerges from the line of seaweed or the long stems of a railroad vine encroach from higher up the dune. In the fore-dune area, lower growing shrubs like golden beach creeper or painted leaf or one of the Crenchrus species notorious sandspurs or the various species of grasses grow. Above them sea oats form clumps before a shortened thicket of cabbage palms, sea grapes that mark the dune crest. In a clearer area the group saw a prickly pear cactus, and where there appeared to be human disturbance, Bidens pilosa was prevalent. On the steep downward slope of the back-dune and more protected from the tides and weather are more stable populations that have formed cabbage palm hammocks interspersed with shrubs like Spanish stopper or Florida privet, wild coffee or saw palmetto and several other species. The final area, the mangrove swamps, includes the staples of the such an area: the white, black and red mangrove. Keywords:  plant communities, beach dunes, Lely Barefoot Beach, Collier County native plants, Lee County native plants, 

   Putz, Francis E.   2007.   On Fire.   Palmetto 24 (2): 4-7, 13, 15.

Dr. Putz introduces the subject of fire with a reference to the aprehension people often feel when introduced to the beneficial use of fire, and follows with an overview of its use by people over 13,000 years ago through the more recent use of Smokey the Bear to tell us that only we could prevent forest fires.  Following that brief history of fire and humans, Dr. Putz acknowledges  fires' unpredictable nature and more predictable patterns: how the fire burns, its intensity or speed burning through favorable or less favorable fuels, conditions impacting a fire or the smoke it produces, and how the soil, vegetation and wildlife react to fire in their habitats.  Dr. Putz shifts from generalities about fires in natural areas for the purpose of restoration to personal practices in running a controlled fire including observations on burn piles, their use and their after affects on areas with planned burns, the use herbicides to create burn piles with the same impact but less work, what duff is, how to deal with it, and how purposeful burns demand the creation of firebreaks. Finally, Putz deals with potential legal issues that could result from mishaps connected to a prescribed fire and offers several bits of advice to those planning a burn. After the main article, Dr. Putz details "A Burn Scenario" outlining the tale of a controlled burn on private property. Keywords: head fires, back burn,drip torch, fatwood, duff, firebreaks, certified burn boss  

   Minno, Marc and Maria.   1998.   On the Edge: The Atlantic White Cedars of Mormon Branch.   Palmetto 18 (2): 11-12.

An account of a visit to Mormon Branch, a spring-fed creek in Ocala National Forest. The branch is home to species rare in central Florida including the atlantic white cedar, hellow anise, needle palm, climbing pieris, and grass-of parnassus.

   Pancoast, John.   1992.   One Man's Weed.   Palmetto 12 (2): 20.

Locustberry. Byrsonima lucida.

   Osorio, Rufino.   1996.   Ornamental Bunchgrasses.   Palmetto 16 (1): 5-6.

   Munson, June.   1991.   Oshibana.   Palmetto 11 (1): 4-5.

The Japanese art of pressing flowers in rice paper.

   Curtis, Linda.   2015.   Our globally imperiled sedge.   Palmetto 32 (3): 4-7.

This article presents a portrait of Carex paeninsulae including its identification characteristics and habitat. Keywords:  endemic, rare species, sinkholes, limestone, plant identification.

   Morton, Julia F.   1989.   Our Misunderstood Mahogany and Its Problems.   Palmetto 9 (4): 9-11.

   Luer, Carlyle A.   1997.   Our Retreating Native Orchids.   Palmetto 17 (1): 7.

   Hannahs, Eve.   1984.   Painted Lady.   Palmetto 4 (2): 3.

Article offers a brief examination of the brush-footed Painted Lady butterfly detailing its favored larval and nectar plants, its appearance as it transitions from larvae to pupa to adult butterfly including the adult butterfly's preference  for open spaces  Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, brushfooted-butterflies, appearance, .

   Urban, Peg.   2014.   Palatlakaha Environmental and Agricultural Reserve.   Palmetto 31 (3): 2, 8.

Land Management review of the Palatlakaha Environmental and Agricultural Reserve.

   Hopper, Rob and Kristina Serbesoff-King.   2007.   Palm Beach County's Newest Display Garden.   Palmetto 24 (2): .

Designing an implementing a native plant garden at Mounts Botanical Garden. Keywords:  gardening, demonstration garden.

   Mock, Terrance.   1984.   Palm Beach: Tropical Paradise or Expensive Illusion?.   Palmetto 4 (3): 11-12.

   Ward, Daniel B.   2011.   Papaya Carica papaya (Caricaceae).   Palmetto 28 (1): 8-11.

As of 2023, this species is considered to be native.  Apparently first grown in about 300 AD.

   Rogers, George.   2020.   Paperwasps as Pollinators.   Palmetto 36 (2): 8, 14.

Paper wasps are intelligent, complex, good-looking, and docile if you don’t provoke them. They are  also pollinators, visiting the flowers of corkwood goldenrods, milkweeds and more. 

   Lockhart, Christine.   2000.   Paul and Sherry Cummings, an Interview.   Palmetto 20 (1): 13-14.

   Gray, Phyllis.   2000.   Peggy and Don Lantz, an interview.   Palmetto 20 (2): 16-18.

   Doukas, Annette.   1993.   Perennial Glasswort.   Palmetto 13 (3): 8.

A description of glasswort and its ecology.

   Putz, Francis E.   2006.   Perils and Joys of Ecosystem Restoration.   Palmetto 23 (3): 4-7, 14.

Talks about the demise of most of the pine savannas in the southeast and the joys of restoring them. Keywords:  Ecology, restoration

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1989.   Persimmon, Diospyros virginiana L.   Palmetto 9 (2): 20.

   Lantz, Peggy.   1988.   Pesky Peppers Pickled.   Palmetto 8 (4): 12.

Brazilian pepper, an edible pest plant

   Moriaty, William D.   1987.   Picnic Island Park: Three Years After the Freeze.   Palmetto 7 (1): 3.

Describes three years of restoration efforts at Picnic Ilsand Park including the combined success of a freeze that killed Australian pines and community efforts that planted natives.

   Stout, Jack I.   1990.   Pigmy Fringe Tree Under Fire.   Palmetto 10 (4): 5.

Keywords: endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Buhram, Judith.   1993.   Planning a Wildlife Garden.   Palmetto 13 (4): 9.

   Beriault, John G.   1987.   Planning and Planting a Native Plant Yard.   Palmetto 7 (3): 3-8.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Austin, Daniel.   1988.   Plant Adaptations in the Fakahatchee.   Palmetto 18 (3): 7-8, 15.

Preserved since 1974, some 484 plant species, almost a quarter of them endangered, occur. These include royal palm, paurotis palm, eared spleenwort, narrow strap fern, tailed strap fern, hanging clubmoss, powdery catopsis, nodding catopsis, Fuchs' bromeliad, fuzzy-wuzzy airplant, tiny orchid, ghost orchid, hidden orchid, and Fakahatchee burmannia. The article present a paragraph on each species. Some information in this article is outdated -- such as the number of plants listed as endangered or threatened. Keywords:  endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, plant ecology.

   Cummings, Paul and Sherry.   1983.   Plant More Cypress.   Palmetto 3 (4): 12.

Taxodium distichum and Taxodium ascendens as landscape plants. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Beriault, John G.   1987.   Planting A Native Plant Yard: Part II.   Palmetto 7 (4): 3-8.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Huegel, Craig N..   2020.   Planting a wildflower meadow.   Palmetto 36 (2): 4-7, 15.

Discusses designing, installing, and managing a meadow in a home landscape.  Keywords:  Landscaping, meadow

   Dick, Mary C.   1994.   Planting for Energy Conservation.   Palmetto 14 (4): 10.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Greene, Tom.   2011.   Point Washington State Forest.   Palmetto 28 (1): 2, 13.

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1992.   Poke Salad.   Palmetto 12 (4): 16.

Phytolacca americana. Editor's note: this is one of several species that have foliage that is tasty when young and poisonous at other times.  The fruits are poisonous.

   Carr, Susan, Sondra Driscoll, Sonya Guidry, Amanda Martin and Winnie Said.   2018.   Policy and plants: How chapters are making a difference .   Palmetto 34 (4): 10-13.

The "Take Your Lawmaker on a Field Trip" challenge invited FNPS chapters to organize educational field trips for local and state legislators. Three chapters rose to the challenge.  

   Cascio, Joseph A.   1986.   Policy on Transplanting Native Plants for Landscape Use.   Palmetto 6 (3): 14.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, policy.

   Daniels, Jaret C.   2012.   Pollinators & Corridors.   Palmetto 29 (4): 4-5.

Florida’s roadsides are a network of living edges, touching and linking nearly every natural and agricultural resource in the state. Learn how roadsides and other unused areas such as canal margins and utility easements can be managed to benefit a variety of pollinator species.

   Austin, Dan.   2001.   Pond Apples.   Palmetto 21 (1): 10-11.

Keywords:  Florida natives, ethnobotany.

   Watson, Craig.   1991.   Ponds in the Backyard Habitat.   Palmetto 11 (2): 4-5.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Lantz, Peggy.   1982.   Preserving the Past.   Palmetto 2 (3): 2.

The home of Henry Nehrling, horticulturist.

   Munson, June.   1993.   Preserving the Wild.   Palmetto 13 (4): 16-17.

Preserving plants for various purposes (not herbarium specimens).

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1989.   Prickly Pear.   Palmetto 9 (3): 11.

Some cacti are rare.  Please pick only common cacti on lands where you have permission to do so.

   Workman, Dick.   1995.   Primitive Technology or Making Do with Native Plants.   Palmetto 15 (4): 6-8.

   Ward, Daniel B.   2008.   Primrose Willow, Ludwigia peruviana (ONAGRACEAE).   Palmetto 25 (2): 14-15.

Discussion about whether or not this problematic species might be native to Florida.

   Hamby, Carrie.   1999.   Project WILD and Schoolyard Wildlife Programs: Promise for the Future.   Palmetto 19 (1): 6, 10.

The article announces the availability of action grants to Florida schools or non-profit youth-related organizations during the 1999-2000 school year and enumerates the advantages to participants. Originally part of the Project Wild program in the early 1990s the program offered teachers the opportunity to attend workshops about Florida ecosystems including ideas to incorporate lessons in tthe curriculum. The renewed 1999-2000 grant program offered support to these organizations to improve human and wildlife habitat on school sites. Key Words: schools, Project WILD, grants, habitats

   Pence, Valerie C..   2006.   Propagating & Preserving Pawpaws (and Other Rare Species) from Florida.   Palmetto 23 (4): 8-12.

   Seamon, Paul A.and Ronald L. Myers.   1992.   Propagating Wiregrass from Seed.   Palmetto 12 (4): 6-7.

Keywords:  propagation, restoration.

   Eisner, Thomas.   1990.   Prospecting for Nature's Chemical Riches.   Palmetto 10 (3): 11-12.

   Nelson, Gil and Tova Spector.   2011.   Protecting Endangered Plant Species in Panhandle State Parks.   Palmetto 28 (1): 4-7, 15.

Article describes efforts to locate, verify, and catalogue the location of plant taxa of special interest in the 33 Florida Panhandle Sate Parks located in District 1, an area of great biodiversity that contains large numbers of plant species endangered or threatened at both federal and state level. The 3 phase project, initiated for the purpose of protecting the species of interest, was partially funded by a FNPS grant and included a search all regional herbarium and cataloguing specimums, verfication of records, and identification of state parks with under-represented in available data or with a significant lack of records of these species. As of the 2011 publication, the herbarium search was completed but the verification of locations and site checks of locations were ongoing. Four tables included in the article list regional herbaria searched, state parks with plant species of special interests identified, special interest plant taxa within District 1 Panhandle State Parks, and  special interest plants in the Sweetwater Ravine.  Keywords:  endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, florida state parks, conservation, Florida Panhandle

   Hart, Robin.   1988.   Protection of Endangered Species Plants Too?.   Palmetto 8 (3): 4-5.

Points out our strange societal values that value endangered animals over endangered plants. Reasons for protecting plants are discussed and include use to society as potential sources of drugs, food, fuel, fiber, protection against climatic change, protection of biodiversity. Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, policy.

   Brinkley, Laura.   1983.   Public Landscaping: How To Evaluate the Ecology.   Palmetto 3 (4): 2-3, 6.

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1990.   Radishes and Onions.   Palmetto 10 (1): 12.

Includes a variety of wild foods including Florida betony (which has a radish-like root), and anything that smells like garlic or onion.

   Austin, Daniel.   2000.   Rain Lilies.   Palmetto 20 (3): 14-16.

Zephranthes spp. Keywords:  Florida natives, ethnobotany.

   Wolf, Kathy L.   1982.   Rare Trees Discovered.   Palmetto 2 (3): 5.

Keywords: endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Putz, Francis E.   2006.   Reading Your Landscape.   Palmetto 23 (4): 4-5, 12-13.

Keywords:  Restoration

   Weekley, Carl.   2009.   Recent Developments Boost Recovery Prospects of Florida Ziziphus.   Palmetto 26 (1): 8-11.

The discovery in 2007 of five new populations of Florida ziziphus is the most important development for the recovery of this critically endangered Lake Wales Ridge endemic since its initial rediscovery more than 20 years ago. New populations and experimental introductions have boosted the recovery prospects of this state- and federally listed shrub. To appreciate the significance of these recent developments, it helps to know something about the unusual history and biology of Florida ziziphus.

   Bartlett, Marcy R.   1988.   Recipe for a Successful Celebration.   Palmetto 8 (3): 3.

A celebration of an event at the Audubon Turkey Creek Sanctuary.

Johnson, Ann F.   1986.   Recipe for Growing Florida Rosemary, Main Ingredient: Patience!,.   Palmetto 6 (1): 5.

Ceratiola ericoides

   Lantz, Peggy and Sam Hopkins.   1989.   Red Hibiscus.   Palmetto 9 (1): 9.

A description of Hibiscus coccineus and its habitat and landscape uses.

   Noss, Reed.   1984.   Rescue or abuse? (editorial).   Palmetto 4 (4): 12.

An editorial expressing the concern that some people might be harvesting natives from the wild under the guise of rescue.  [editor's note] FNPS now has formal guidlines on when it is/is not appropriate to 'rescue' plants from the wild, needed permits, etc.

   Haynes, Jody L.   2006.   Research and Collecting Permit Information for Protected Native Plant Species in Florida.   Palmetto 23 (2): .

The information presented here was current in 2006.  Please be sure to consult more current information from FDACS.

   Morrison, Darrel G.   1983.   Restoration Of Disturbed Sites.   Palmetto 3 (2): 3.

   Cummings, Paul and Sherry.   1987.   Restoration on the Smallest Scale.   Palmetto 7 (1): 6.

As an individual, you can make a difference. Go plant something - a tree, a shrub, a groundcover. Plants purify air, clood the environment, provide shade. Start on a planting crusade. Planting of trees and shrubs is effective whether the plant if exotic, naturalized or native. Plant all you can. To be the most cost effective, plant native plants.

   Gann-Matzen, George.   1987.   Restoration: A Global Perspective.   Palmetto 7 (1): 4, 13.

International conservation benefits florida. Living things depend on genetic diversity. Issues include sustainable development and regeneration of degraded lands.

   Drylie, David M. Jr..   1987.   Restoration: The Initiation of a Natural Process.   Palmetto 7 (1): 10.

The article presents the mission of one of Florida's landscape architecture firms that specializes in native landscaping. Florida Landscapes and Associates, undertakes "creative conservation" blending the dynamics of natural systems ecology and the human landscape to create designs with nature. Green Images is a wholesale native plant nurserty that produces stock for native landscapes. People and their lives are interconnected to all other living things. Every minute of every hour our lives are affected by our dynamic relationship with nature. Design with Nature.

   Moore, Damon.   2010.   Restoring Maripossa Key.   Palmetto 27 (4): 4-6.

   Stibolt, Ginny.   2020.   Rethinking Florida's Urban Trees.   Palmetto 36 (1): 8-11, 15.

Florida’s natural tree populations have been vastly reduced as more and more people have settled here. In suburban communities new trees have been planted at much lower densities than the original populations. In urban areas, tree density is even lower, but urban trees provide a number of important benefits.

   Robbins, Elizabeth.   1988.   Rim Ramble.   Palmetto 8 (3): 8-9.

Describes a ranger-lead walk, the Rim Ramble, at Paynes Prairie State Preserve Park near Gainesville. The walk includes hammock and the edge of the prairie.

   Workman, Dick.   1992.   Roadside Tree Planting in Florida Then and Now.   Palmetto 12 (4): 24.

Keywords:  native landscaping, transportation.

   Scott, Gwladys E.   2002.   Roger Hammer, an interview.   Palmetto 21 (2): 7.

   Wunderlin, Richard P.   2002.   Rolla Milton Tryon Memorial.   Palmetto 21 (2): 9.

   Trebatoski, JoAnne.   2000.   Rosemary Fleming, an Interview.   Palmetto 20 (2): 10-11.

   Buhrman, Judith.   1993.   Round the Year on Kissimmee Prairie Sanctuary.   Palmetto 13 (2): 14-15.

Describes a winter visit to the Audubon Society's Kissimmee Prairie Sanctuary including an overview of migratory birds, animals and plants lingering after the Autumn season and emerging during the Winter. The writer speculates about the possible reasons why the tress have remained in abeyance and the land remains a prairie with few trees and examines the need for a fire dependent ecosystem and how modern practices of prescribed burns deal with the 8000 acre's need for these burns controlled by man to survive.

   Buhrman, Judith.   1992.   Round the Year on Kissimmee Prairie Sanctuary.   Palmetto 12 (1): 12-13.

Over the period of a year 3 FNPS members visited the Audobon Kissimmee Prairie Sanctuary and Judith Buhrman—one of the three—wrote  a series of 4 articles describing each of these seasonal visits. The first article about the Autumn of 1992 offers a descriptive compendium of plant and animal species seen during that first visit with the Prairie manager and a discussion of the struggles he confronts with non-native animals and a limited budget.  Formerly Audobon's Kissimmee Prairie Sanctuary, the park is now known as the Kissimmee Prairie Preserve State Park. 

   Buhrman, Judith and Scott Hedges.   1993.   Round the Year on Kissimmee Prairie Sanctuary.   Palmetto 13 (1): 3-4.

Describes a winter visit to the Audubon Society's Kissimmee Prairie Sanctuary including an overview of migratory birds, animals and plants lingering after the Autumn season and emerging during the Winter. The writer speculates about the possible reasons why the tress have remained beyond the prairie in abeyance and why the land remains a prairie with few trees and examines the need for a fire dependent ecosystem and how modern practices of prescribed burns deal with the 8000 acre's need for burns controlled by man to survive.  Editor's note:  This is now part of Kissimmee Prairie State Park.  The park includes the largest area of dry prairie remaining in Florida.

   Buhrman, Judith.   1993.   Round the Year on Kissimmee Prairie Sanctuary: Summer.   Palmetto 13 (3): 10-11.

Describes an August visit (the 3rd of 4 seaspnal visits) to the Audubon Society's Kissimmee Prairie Sanctuary during a period of channging weather, prairie wildflowers transitioning from late Summer to Fall species, the presence of migratory birds and insects and the preparation for a prescribed burn at one of 3 mitigation sites. 

   Editor.   2003.   Roy Woodbury Memorial.   Palmetto 22 (1): 11.

Key Words:  People

   Trebatoski, JoAnne.   2000.   Ruth Danforth, an Interview.   Palmetto 20 (1): 14-15.

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1992.   Salads.   Palmetto 12 (1): 17.

Includes a long list of plants that are good in salads.

   Godts, Teri.   2000.   Samuel B. Hopkins, an interview.   Palmetto 20 (2): 13-14.

   Simmonds, William.   1995.   Sand - That Wonderful Stuff.   Palmetto 15 (1): 4-8.

This article present the challenge of growing lawn grasses on sand - the water and chemical needs to sustain grass. It then discusses what many natural flatwoods sand soils look like, including the hardpan layer that underlies most of them. The article thoroughly discusses the management of sand soil, how to manage water on them, and what not to plant (grass).

   Dutcher, Hollie and Francis E. Putz.   2015.   Saving cypress.   Palmetto 32 (4): 12-15.

A discussion of how current logging may be more damaging to the long-term suvival of cypress than historic logging practices.  Discusses issues such as cypress mulch and recent attempts to thwart or discourage logging.

   Weekely, Carl; Race, Tammera; and Hardin, Dennis..   1999.   Saving Florida Ziziphus, Recovery of a Rare Lake Wales Ridge Endemic.   Palmetto 19 (2): 9-11, 20.

This article, as reprinted on the Archbold Biological Station web site, describes Florida ziziphus and its phenology and conservation status. Keywords: endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, propagation, scrub.

   Weekley, Carl W., Doria R. Gordon, Joe Maguire, Joyce Maschinski, Eric S. Menges, Valerie C. Pence, Cheryl L. Peterson.   2008.   Saving Florida's Rarest Plants: Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Plant Conservation Grants Program.   Palmetto 25 (2): 8-13.

   Moody, Norman.   1984.   Saving Natives on Public School Property.   Palmetto 4 (4): 5.

The author,  a maintinance department employee of Palm Beach County Schools with knowledge of native plants, outlines a successful pathway for working within government agencies like the school systm to save native plants on land to be used for sites being cleared for building.  

   Tasker, George.   1990.   Saving Parts of Florida Won't Save the Whole.   Palmetto 10 (2): 11-13.

Refers to the 10th FNPS annual conference

   Fotinos, Tonya D., Joyce Maschinski and Eric von Wettberg.   2014.   Saving the endangered Florida Keys tree cactus (Pilosocereus robinii) using new genetic tools.   Palmetto 31 (2): 12-15.

Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Wilson, Dave.   1984.   Saving the Palmetto.   Palmetto 4 (3): 10.

In 1984 when this article appeared in FNPS's Palmetto, the Sabal palmetto was not sold commercially in containers by nurseries. If a person wanted one, the author outlines the single step-by-step technique he has used that has worked to successfully transplant a Serenoa repens. Keywords: Serenoa repens, palmetto, transplanting palmettos

   Wilson, Dave.   1982.   Saw Palmetto: Emblem of the FNPS.   Palmetto 1 (2): 5.

Serenoa repens.  The article talks about the species.  [editor's note]  It says that the species is difficult to transplant (it is) with the implication that it is difficult to grow.  More modern nursery techniques have developed procedures such that this is now a good landscape plant.

   Rogers, George.   2018.   Sawgrass and the crocodilians.   Palmetto 34 (3): 10-11.

What plant is most emblematic of Florida? Not the ubiquitous palm tree, but the dominant marsh plant of the Everglades, sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense). The article discusses the plant (which is not really a grass, rather it is a sedge), its growth habits, and the importance of crockadilians in its dispersal. Keywords:  keystone species

   Killen, Linda.   1991.   School Butterfly Gardens.   Palmetto 11 (1): 9.

Several elementary schools recieve grants to create butterfly gardens that allow students to view the life cycle of various butterfly species and the role of native host and nectar plants in this process. Keywords:  gardening, butterflies, education.

   Stout, Jack I..   1996.   Science Roundup.   Palmetto 16 (1): 20.

   Stout, Jack I..   1995.   Science Roundup.   Palmetto 15 (4): 14-15.

   Stout, Jack I..   1995.   Science Roundup.   Palmetto 15 (1): 17.

Biodiversity and gap analysis. Gap analysis is a GIS-based, coarse filter approach to mapping biodiversity hot spots. It recognizes that the approach is undergoing rapid changes in technology and in model components.

Stout, Jack I..   1994.   Science Roundup.   Palmetto 14 (4): 14.

   Stout, Jack I..   1994.   Science Roundup.   Palmetto 14 (3): 16.

Out of date

   Stout, Jack I..   1994.   Science Roundup.   Palmetto 14 (1): 15.

Out of date

   Layne, James and Warren Abrahamson.   2006.   Scrub Hickory, a Florida Endemic.   Palmetto 23 (2): 4-7, 13.

Biology and ecology of the scrub hickory, Carya floridana. Key words:  Endemic

   Cole, Gertrude W.   1982.   Scrub Palmetto, or Sabal etonia.   Palmetto 2 (2): 10.

Sabal etonia

   Katz, Cathie.   1995.   Sea Beans-World Travelers.   Palmetto 15 (2): 4-5.

   Putz, Francis E.   2012.   Sea Level Rise and Florida Coastal Forests.   Palmetto 29 (1): 8-11.

That sea levels are rising is hardly new news–they have been doing so since the end of the last major glaciation some 18,000 years ago. The current rate of rise, a little more than a tenth of an inch per year, is also not that unusual–6000-8000 years ago the seas were often rising ten times faster. What is different today and the reason for concern is that back then in response to rapidly rising waters, coastal dwelling Floridians just picked up and moved uphill, leaving their villages, burrows, nests, and rooted parents behind. Today it is not so easy to move uphill, for humans nor the rest of the biota, but move we must.

   Gann, Joyce.   1986.   Seaside Plants for Problem Landscapes.   Palmetto 6 (1): 6-7.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Curtis, Linda.   2008.   Sedges. Do We Know Them?.   Palmetto 25 (2): 4-7.

This articles presents the great variety of Florida's sedges and the main identifying characteristics of the genus.

   Huegel, Craig.   1993.   Selecting Food Plants for Wildlife.   Palmetto 13 (4): 6-7.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, wildlife.

   Bissett, Nancy.   1986.   Serenoa.   Palmetto 6 (1): 3-4.

Saw palmetto: This plant evokes reactions of love or hate in Floridians, but offers great value to wildlife. Article describes the ubiquitous Florida Serenoa repens and both its botanical binomial and common names, the weather and ecosystems it grows in successfully, and includes a brief description of its ethnobotanical and landscaping value.

   Bartlett, Marcy.   1986.   Shakespeare knew something about landscaping.   Palmetto 6 (2): 8.

New or new-to-Florida gardeners may assume the landscape they want is one unsuitable to Florida’s central east coast, but after a few years of the area’s winters or the summer storm season discover that what really want plants that can thrive in those unexpected conditions Florida throws at them. The author identifies 6 native plants commonly found in Brevard’s natural areas that help maintain healthy ecosystems and thrive despite the challenges they confront with little to no help from residents. Key Words: Brevard, native plants, landscape, natural areas, Ceratiola, scrub rosemary, yucca, beargrass, Lupinus, lupine, Myrica, wax myrtle, Serena repens, saw palmetto,   tar flower

   Berthet, Bill.   2013.   Sharing Memories with Butterflies.   Palmetto 30 (2): 12-15.

Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, butterfly nectar plants.

Cummings, Paul and Sherry.   1986.   Six Hundred Miles of Native Plants.   Palmetto 2 (1): 1-2.

   Cascio, Joseph.   1987.   Smaller is Better.   Palmetto 7 (2): 11.

Advice for establishing trees in the landscape. With proper care, small trees will grow faster than large container-grown trees and will catch up in size rapidly. The article provides advice for establishing a native landscape.

   Stibolt, Ginny.   2020.   Soil: The Ecosystem Beneath our Feet.   Palmetto 36 (2): 9-11.

Soil is a complex ecosystem of bacteria, fungi,  nematodes, earthworms, ants, salamanders,  toads, insect larvae, moles, and more, all living  in a substrate of minerals and humus. Learn how soil works, why conventional lawn care can  damage it, and how it can be restored.  Keywords:  Soil, Wildlife, Restoration

   Coile, Nancy.   1994.   Some Endangered Plants Species in Florida: Why are they Designated' Endangered'?.   Palmetto 14 (4): 8.

The official state list of endangered and threatened plant species is maintained by the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Endangered species are located throught the state, but concentrated in the Panhandle, Central Ridge, south Florida rockland hammocks, and Everglades. Rarity comes from various causes. Contributing factors include low genetic variabilitiy, poor see set, low seed viability, few pollinators, dioecious traits, suseptability to change in available water regime, temperature, succession, or competioion, or habitat destruction. Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Moyroud, Richard.   1996.   South Florida Slash Pine, Pinus elliottii variety densa.   Palmetto 16 (4): 11-12.

   McCartney, Chuck.   1985.   South Florida Wildflowers - Candidates for Cultivation.   Palmetto 5 (1): 8-9.

   McCartney, Chuck.   1985.   South Florida's Epiphytic Orchids: How Healthy are They? Part I.   Palmetto 5 (2): 3-5.

Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   McCartney, Chuck.   1985.   South Florida's Epiphytic Orchids: How Healthy are They? Part II.   Palmetto 5 (3): 8-9.

Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Foltz, John L.   2002.   Southern Pine Beetles: What Do They Do & What Should We Do?.   Palmetto 21 (3): 10-11.

In the 2001 Volume 21 the first issue of the Palmetto published a letter from FNPS member and Paines Prairie ecologist arguing that Florida should not approve the city of Gainsville's request to declare the 2001 native Southern Pine Beetles (SPB) infestation of trees a state of emergency authorizing the Department of Forestry (DOF) to inspect trees without owner's permission and if not removed  remove the infested trees at the owner's expense. This article appearing two issues later is a response from John Foltz, a forest entomologist with 25 years of experience with SPB, argues what he believes an appropriate response would be. He lays out key facts with bearing on the discussion, points out the expense to the city and individuals of an earlier outbreak in Gainsville that killed 42,000 trees and explains the city's 2001 efforts to supress that SPB outbreak. Foltz argues that a state declaration of emergency authorizing the outlined actions at owner's expense was not inappropriate given the circumstances. Keywords: insect infestation, Southern Pine Beetle, 

   Osorio, Rufino.   2011.   Spanish Daisy Helenium amarum.   Palmetto 28 (4): 12-13.

   Jensen, A.S..   1982.   Spanish Moss, Symbol of the Southland.   Palmetto 2 (4): 1-2.

Tillandsia usneoides  

   Gholson, Angus K. Jr., W. Wilson Baker and Gil Nelson.   1997.   Special Orchids of the Florida Big Bend.   Palmetto 17 (1): 13, 18.

Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Putz, Francis.   2012.   Spring Comes to North Florida.   Palmetto 29 (4): 6-7.

The article talks about this harbinger of early Florida spring (technically still winter) and considers such topics as the value to toxic nectar.

Putz, Francis E (Jack).   2012.   Spring Comes to North Florida.   Palmetto 29 (4): 6-7.

Yellow jessamine is common in a wide range of ecosystems and the large blooms contain a pharmacopoeia of toxins, some of which are passed on to insect visitors. Explore the plant strategies behind this spring beauty’s toxic nectar.

   Cummings, Paul and Sherry.   1981.   Stamp Out Brazilian Pepper!.   Palmetto 1 (4): 10.

Keywords: invasive species, pest plants.

   Cascio, Joseph.   1987.   Standards for Native Plant Nurseries.   Palmetto 7 (4): 10.

   Draper, Eric.   2019.   State Parks Benefit From Native Plant Expertise.   Palmetto 35 (2): 4-5.

The Florida Native Plant Society is a valuable partner in preserving natural state park landscapes, and last year, FNPS volunteers served on 100 percent of state land management review panels. Keywords:  Citizen science, land management plannng  

   Wettstein, Fritz.   2011.   Stickywilly, North Florida’s Winter Hobo.   Palmetto 28 (3): 10-11.

   Austin, Daniel.   1993.   Stinking Passion-Flower: Hero or Villian.   Palmetto 13 (3): 5.

Discusses the spread of the non-native passionflower, Passiflora foetida. Keywords:  alien, non-natives.

   Austin, Daniel F.   2002.   Sundews.   Palmetto 21 (3): 12-13.

Small carnivorous plants found primarily in wetlands, sundews have a surprising history of medicinal use. Keywords: Florida natives, ethnobotany.

   Osorio, Rufino.   1994.   Sundrops and Friends.   Palmetto 14 (2): 9.

Oenothera species.

   Smith, Larry M.   1988.   Survival of Transplanted Sabal Palmettos.   Palmetto 8 (2): 11.

Sabal palmetto.

   Brooks, Wesley R, and Rebecca C. Jordan.   2013.   Swamp Fern Experimental Hammock.   Palmetto 30 (4): 4-7.

An experimental hammock in Miami-Dade County is a testing ground for a novel restoration approach that may provide land managers with additional means to conserve rare species, and a tool to reduce noxious exotics on public lands.

   Darst, Melanie.   1983.   Sweet Princess Of Far Florida: The Yellow Jessamine.   Palmetto 3 (1): 2-3.

Gelsemium sempervirens

   Osorio, Rufino.   1994.   Sweet Spire: Itea virginica.   Palmetto 14 (1): 12.

   Ward, Daniel B.   2009.   Tamarindillo or Cinnecord: Acacia choriophylla (LEGUMINOSAE).   Palmetto 26 (1): 12-13.

Name is now Vachellia choriophylla Discussion about whether or not this problematic species might be native to Florida. As of 2023, this is considered to be native and state endangered.

   Butts, Glenn.   2013.   Tarkiln Bayou Preserve State Park.   Palmetto 30 (4): 10-11.

Located in the extreme western portion of Florida, Tarkiln Bayou Preserve harbors near pristine stands of the rare and endangered whitetop pitcherplant (Sarracenia leucophylla), as well as other interesting species.

   Rogers, Evan.   2012.   Techniques for growing native ferns from spores.   Palmetto 29 (2): 8-11.

Keywords:  propagation.

   Norman, Eliane.   2007.   The “False Pawpaws” - History, Biology and Conservation of Deeringothamnus.   Palmetto 24 (4): 4-7, 15.

A comparison of Deeringothamnus with Asimina and lots of information of the ecology of Deeringothamnus. Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, plant identification.

   Lantz, Peggy S..   1981.   The Aeolian Harp Tree.   Palmetto 1 (1): 6.

Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto. Keywords: native plants.

   Workman, Richard.   1990.   The Alva Flower.   Palmetto 10 (1): 20.

The town of Alva is named after a plant!  Alvaradoa amorphoides.

   Beckner, John.   1997.   The Biology of Florida's Orchids.   Palmetto 17 (1): 6.

   Hannahs, Eve.   1985.   The Buckeyes (Precis coenia).   Palmetto 5 (1): 3.

Buckeye butterfly are the focus of this article explaining why they are classified as brush-footed, detailing their preference for thistle, the appearance of both adult and larval stages and common reproductive cycles. Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, brush-footed butterflies, thistle butterflies .

   Read, Robert W.   2009.   The Cardinal Mallow: The Mystery of the Red Hibiscus.   Palmetto 26 (4): 8-10.

   Lantz, Peggy S.   1990.   The Celestials.   Palmetto 10 (1): 3-6.

Bartram's ixia, fall flowering ixia, and herbertia Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Hammer, Roger L.   1995.   The Coontie and the Atala Hairstreak.   Palmetto 15 (4): 3-5.

Author Roger Hammer details the history of the cycad Coontie (Zamia pumila) from its prehistoric existence through its use by south Florida indigenous people and how they processed its root for flour eventually drastically reducing its numbers by over-harvesting and habitat loss while the rare and beautiful Atala Hairstreak which relies completely on the Coontie as a larval host plant also was nearly reduced to extinction through habitat loss. Luckily the Coontie's re-emergence as a popular landscape plant and the dedication of local conservationist nurturing, a small remaining population of Atalas was discovered and survived, grew and were spread to ensure the survival and growth of the Atala's population on cultivated Coonties.  Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, conservation, Coontie, Atala Hairstreak

   Hart, Robin.   1987.   The Dark Side of Protecting Wetlands.   Palmetto 7 (3): 10-11.

   Lantz, Peggy.   1989.   The Elderberry.   Palmetto 9 (1): 10.

   Burdett, Allen J. Jr, Paul and Sherry Cummings, Paul and Sherry, Terry Mock, Marie B. Mellinger, Melanie Darst and Kathy Sample.   1981.   The Endangered Species Act, The Lacey Act.   Palmetto 1 (4): 6-7.

   Rhoades, Heidi.   2006.   The Evil Weevil and the No-name Fly.   Palmetto 23 (2): 8-9.

Non-native, invasive insects carrying diseases to native plants. Keywords: invasive species, pest plants.

Creel, Olan Ray.   1999.   The Evil Weevil: What Will Florida Lose?.   Palmetto 19 (4): 10-11, 14-16.

An article on the risks posed by the introduced Mexican weevil to the native bromeliads of Florida as reprinted on the IFAS internet site.

   Moyroud, Richard.   1994.   The Exotic Pest-Plant Council: Dealing with Biological Pollution.   Palmetto 14 (4): 7-8.

The Exotic Pest-Plant Council is a national non-frofit organization founded in Florida in 1984, and deidicated to communication of effective means of control of pest plants. Members include federal, state, and local agencies, private utilities, non-covernmental agencies, private business, and many individuals. Goals are education of the public, funding for development of integrated management strategist, and prevention of spread of exotic pest plants.

   Austin, Daniel.   1993.   The Exotic Virgin Islands.   Palmetto 13 (1): 12-13.

Ethnobotany and invasive species in the Virgin Islands

   Austin, Daniel F.; Jones, Julie L.; and Bennett, Bradley C..   1986.   The Fakahatchee Strand.   Palmetto 6 (2): 3-6.

The Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve, its early history, the region's climate, its plant species, how their earlier presence changed over time and its various habitats are this article's focus. Early occupants of this southwest Florida's preserve suggest both the Seminoles and Glades tribes used this land that drains into three separate south Florida rivers. Its tropical climate experiences about 55 inches of annual rain and its mean temperature generally ranges between 65 and 82 degrees with rare freezing temperatures, and shallow lakes form in sinkholes throughout the area. Early reports describe the Royal Palm and Everglade Palm forests and the harvesting of cypress accommodated by building a narrow gauge railroad that lead the way and brought machinery needed for logging in the area. Before logging ended in the early 50s, efforts began to acquire the Fakahatchee Strand for preservation but efforts weren't successful until the mid-60s. The earliest record of various groupings plant species in the Strand found in a 1947 map compared to plant species indicates that these communities remained in same general areas at the time of this publication, but their number had been reduced. Of special mention were the Royal Palm communities. Former prairies had become cypress swamps and expected successional changes found with other expected swamp plant species. In areas where logging had occurred and farming followed, evidence of farming remained beneath native plants. The inventory of Fakahatchee Strand contained species of tropical plants separate from other tropical plants in South Florida and as of the article's publication more than 475 species of interest because they were both tropical and temerpate plants. While four major habitats are identified--wet prairie, marsh, hammock and swamp--the smaller divisions, while identified and described, are less definative and species not always in the same stage of succession.   Keywords:  endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, swamps, ecosystems, conservation lands, state parks 

   Angel, Todd, Hanna Rosner Katz and Michael Jenkins.   2019.   The False Rosemaries of Florida.   Palmetto 35 (2): 8-10, 12-13.

In the southeastern United States, the genus Conradina is comprised of 7 species, each occupying a  distinct geographic range, and 5 of these species are endemic to Florida. Conradina species are photogenic, attractive to pollinators and sun-loving, however, all but one species are listed as endangered.  Keywords:  Rare Plants, endemic  

   Nauman, Clifton E.   1986.   The Ferns of Florida.   Palmetto 6 (3): 4-5.

   Riach, Jim.   1993.   The Florida Cedars.   Palmetto 13 (1): 5-7.

Distinguishes between Juniperus virginiana, Juniperus virginiana silicola, and Chamaecyparus thyoides.  None are true cedars.

   Brown, Paul Martin.   2000.   The Florida Native Orchid Project.   Palmetto 10 (1): 6-10.

Keywords:  endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Lantz, Peggy.   1981.   The Florida Native Plant Society's Conference was A Clamoring Success.   Palmetto 1 (2): 1, 3.

The first FNPS conference.

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1991.   The Forester's Friend.   Palmetto 11 (1): 11.

Cattails (Typha spp.) and their use as food.

   Lantz, Don.   1990.   The Founding of FNPS, A Short History.   Palmetto 10 (2): 13-14.

   McCartney, Robert B.; Wurdack, Kenneth; Moore, Julie.   1989.   The Genus Lindera in Florida.   Palmetto 9 (2): 13-14.

The articles contrasts the morphology and biogeography of these little-known Florida shrubs. Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Yarlett, Lewis L..   1984.   The Grass-Likes.   Palmetto 4 (4): 3.

Keywords:  plant identification.

   Sulak, Ken.   2014.   The Inky Story of the Dinky Oak Gall.   Palmetto 31 (1): 4-7.

What are those intriguing little spheres that decorate the undersides of some oak leaves? Dr. Ken Sulak takes a close look at these wooden
pearls, and at the creatures that cause their formation

   Rowe, Rosalind and Chris Lockhart.   2011.   The Invasion of the Non-native Climbing Ferns.   Palmetto 28 (3): 4-7.

Lygodiuim spp. Keywords: invasive species, pest plants.

   Hammer, Roger L.   2004.   The Lantana Mess: a Critical Look at the Genus.   Palmetto 23 (1): 21-24.

Describes the confusion around Lantanas and the way the way the names are used by the landscaping industry. It helps throw some clarity on the mess. Keywords:  plant identification, taxonomy, invasive species, non-natives, aliens, endemics, rare plants, endangered species, alter-natives.

   Mellinger, Marie B..   1981.   The Loss Of Beauty.   Palmetto 1 (4): 3.

   Schuh, Robert B. and Ralph Bove.   1984.   The Lost Habitat.   Palmetto 4 (1): 6.

Florida's sand dunes along the western panhandle and part of Alabama's south-eastern coast are a unique area with an elevation of sufficient height to protect its separate plant community for at least 5,000 years and to make it as vulnerable as Florida's east coast to development. The result is an area of sand pine scrub and its community of associated plants and wildlife, many which are endemic to Florida, rare, and classified as endangered. Authors Schuuh and Bove identify 5 research projects and stress that the area and its vegetation's unfathomable value demand further preservation efforts in the face of potential development. KEYWORDS: Sand dunes, Jonathan Dickinson State Park, Scrub Jays, Sand Pine,

   Osorio, Rufino.   1989.   The Miniature Pipevine, Aristolochia serpentaria.   Palmetto 9 (3): 6-7.

   Fernandez, Juan.   1998.   The Miracle Wokers of Virginia Key.   Palmetto 18 (2): 13.

A team of city workers tackles damage from Hurrican Andrews, and invasion by exotic pest plants to reveal remnants of the native ecosystems. They also discovered prickly ash (Zanthoxylum coriaceum), a species endangered due to habitat loss.

   Hannahs, Eve.   1985.   The Monarch Butterfly.   Palmetto 5 (4): 12.

Describes the Monarch butterfly's migration south for the winter, the various migratory paths, stops in Florida and compares the Monarch's appearance with the markings of the Viceroy and Queen butterflies. Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, migration, migratory paths, Monarchs

   Hammer, Roger.   2020.   The Native Passionflowers of Florida.   Palmetto 36 (1): 4-7.

There are six native members of the genus Passiflora in Florida. Two of the most common species are popular among gardeners because of their availability, but especially because they serve as larval host plants for a variety of butterflies. Keywords:  Gardenting, butterflies, pollinators, species profiles

   Roddenberry, David.   2023.   The Native Plant Gardens at Sopchoppy Depot Park .   Palmetto 39 (2): 8-12.

The Native Plant Gardens at Sopchoppy Depot Park was a cooperative effort that included the City of Sopchoppy, The Saracennia Chapter of the Florida Native Plant Society, a local native landscape designer, and a hoard of volunteers.  The Florida Wildflower Foundation provided a grant that expanded the garden and provided enhancements beyond what was originally conceived.  Today, this is a striking example of a native landscape that attracts both adults and children, and a host of native pollinators, butterflies, and birds.  It received a Landscape Award from FNPS in 2021 and has continued to improve since then.

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1994.   The Native Violet.   Palmetto 14 (1): 20.

Some violets are rare.  Please pick only on private lands where you have permission to do so.

   Stibolt.   2019.   The Nature of Plants: An Introduction to How Plants Work by Craig Huegel.   Palmetto 35 (2): 6-7, 11.

An introduction to plant physiology. Keywords:  Book Review  

   Sias, Mildred.   1981.   The Needle Palm.   Palmetto 1 (3): 3.

Rhapidophyllum hystrix Keywords: native plant, seep slopes, mesic uplands.

   Austin, Daniel.   1993.   The Nuance and Wit of Carolus Linnaeus.   Palmetto 13 (1): 8-11.

An account of the binomial nomenclature developed by Carolus Linnaeus and observations on the humor, nuances, and creative geography used by Linnaeus in assigning names.

   Bissett, William F.   1987.   The Ordinances are Coming.   Palmetto 7 (2): 10.

The article lists some of the Florida counties and municipalities that had enacted native plant ordinances as of 1987.

   Schenk, John J..   2014.   The origin of Florida scrub plant diversity.   Palmetto 31 (3): 12-14.

   Hannahs, Eve A..   1983.   The Passion Flower and the Butterfly.   Palmetto 3 (4): 1-2.

The author names a diverse group of butterflies along a Florida roadside during one October and then focuses on the Gulf Fritilary and its host plants, the Passiflora spp. identifying the Corkystem passion vine as its preferred vine. The author describes the butterfly's reproductive cycles and timing and the appearance of the egg, larvae, pupa and adult butterfly. Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods, butterfly nectar plants, Passiflora spp., host plants, Corkystem, Gulf Fritilary 

   Editor.   2000.   The People Behind the Plants - Members: the Heart and Soul of FNPS Part I.   Palmetto 20 (1): 12-27.

Keywords:  People

   Editor.   2000.   The People Behind the Plants - Members: the Heart and Soul of FNPS Part II.   Palmetto 20 (2): 10-19.

Keywords:  People

   Smith, Mariella.   1999.   The Pepper Patrol: Eradication, Education, Restoration.   Palmetto 19 (1): 19.

Schinus terebinthefolius. Keywords:  invasive species, aliens, non-natives, pest plants.

   Bettinger, Edith.   1989.   The Perfect Seed Envelope.   Palmetto 9 (2): 14.

Describes an envelope for collecting and storing seed that can be made from a simple sheet of paper.

   Bradley, Keith and George Gann.   1999.   The Pine Rockland Forests of Southern Florida.   Palmetto 19 (2): 12-14, 19.

The Pine Rockland Forests in South Florida grow from a unique soil unlike the typical Florida sand or the clay soil of more northern regions. The Slash Pine canopy dominates this area with the hard limestone sand layer, but the plant diversity that shares the space are an unusual varety of tropical and temperate plants all providing a habitat for a variety of animal species including 5 federally listed animal species and neotropical migrating birds. The tropical plants often find their northern range here just as the temperate plant species southern range often stops there. Some plant species growing in this south Florida region also can also be found in somewhat similar but unconnected areas in Central Florida. Many species here are endemic to Florida and some to the pine rockland area. Common native palms and limited shrubs occupy the understory, but the herbaceous layer offers a diverse collection of both temperate and tropical plants. Included in this collection are 5 federally listed  and are 80 are state listed with several of these reccommended for federal listing. The future remaining lands and its plant community is dim. Fire suppression, a lack of protection for rare emdemic species and invasive plnts threaten its existence despite land aquisition programs. Keywords:  endangered species, endangered plants, rare plants, rare species, conservation lands, national parks, plant communities, ecosystems.

   Coile, Nancy C.   1993.   The Plant from Hell.   Palmetto 13 (3): 7.

An account of invasion of pastures and grazing lands by Solanum viarum. Keywords: invasive species, pest plants.

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1991.   The Pleasures of Sassafrass.   Palmetto 11 (4): 8.

Talks about beverages made from sassafras including both a very tasty tea and a beer.  Editor's note:  for safety, use these as occastional treats and not as beverages that you consume frequently as  recent studies have suggested that sassafras may have some carcinogenic components.

   Martin, Andrew.   2001.   The Puzzling Carter's Orchid.   Palmetto 20 (4): 4-7, 13.

Basiphyllaea corallicola

   Brownscombe, Richard.   2014.   The rebirth of Cape Florida.   Palmetto 31 (1): 12-14.

FNPS participation in a land management review at Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park.  Includes history of the park and current status of the park and its planning.

   McCartney, Chuck.   1990.   The Rein Orchids of Florida.   Palmetto 10 (3): 3-6.

Keywords:  endangered species endangered plants, rare plants, rare species.

   Huegel, Craig N.   2012.   The Relative Cold-Hardiness of Some South Florida Plants.   Palmetto 29 (3): 8-10.

Craig Huegel, author, posits his belief that except in cases of restoration, gardeners might improve diversity, habitat value in personal yards by planting natives out of their natural Florida region. He bases his belief on his years of gardening especially in his experience in Central Florida's Pinellas County both in his personal yards and at the plantings in the Pinellas County Extension Office. In both his pesonal and the county's landscape, he has planted plants from both North Florida and South Florida where he could provide the needs of plants and meet his landscaping goals and improving wildlife habitat value. While working at the Pinellas County Extension Office Huegel had the opportunity to put his belief to the test during the winters of 2009-10 and 2010-2011 when the temperature dropped to a low of 26 degrees for hours. In the aftermath of these freezes, Huegel surveyed the damage to woody species in the extension office's gardens and catalogued the damage to trees, ranking each woody species in1 of 5 catagories: no damage, slight damage, moderate damage, severe damage and killed. Article contains the description of each catagory, the results of his study and photographs of plants in the catagories as examples. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, climate

   Spence, Don and Jason Smith.   2013.   The status of laurel wilt.   Palmetto 30 (3): 4-5, 8-10.

Perhaps millions of trees in the southeastern coastal plain have been killed by the fungal pathogen Rajfaelea lauricola since its symbiont, the Asian redbay ambrosia beetle was first discovered near Savannah, Georgia in 2002. Don Spence and Jason Smith investigate the current status of laurel wilt, now widespread throughout Florida.  The progression of this highly fatal disease across Florida and a summary of the ambrosia beetle-fungus diseasy cycle. Keywords: invasive species, non-native insects.

   Wunderlich III, Richard.   2008.   The Sustainable Conference.   Palmetto 25 (3): 10.

   Marsh, John.   2000.   The Tao of Gardening with Neighbors in Mind.   Palmetto 20 (3): 17-18.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   McCartney, Chuck.   1997.   The Tetramicra Mystery.   Palmetto 17 (1): 12, 14-15.

   Moriaty, William D.   1990.   The Tulip Tree in Pensacola.   Palmetto 10 (3): 6-7.

Liriodendron tulipifera

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1992.   The Ubiquitous Dandelion.   Palmetto 12 (3): 15.

The common dandilion, a small non-native weed, is a source of greens when young, cooked greens when somewhat older. Roots can be cooked and eaten or cooked and dried as a coffee substitute. Similar uses can be made of false dandelion and hawks beard. Keywords: invasive species, pest plants.

   Godts, Jose E.   1990.   The Upside-Down Flower.   Palmetto 10 (4): 3.

Butterfly pea, Centrosema virginianum.

   Osorio, Rufino.   2006.   The Wildflower Garden, Pine Hyacinth.   Palmetto 23 (3): 8-9.

Pine hyacinth Note:  Page 8 is missing

   Salvato, Mark.   1998.   The Wooly Croton: Host for Two Endemic South Florida Butterflies.   Palmetto 18 (3): 9-10.

The Florida leafwing and Bartram's hairstreak, use the wooly croton, Croton linearis, as their sole host plant. It is rare in the keys except on Big Pine Key but grows on the mainland in limestone areas of Dade and Monroe counties including Everglades National Park. Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly, larval foods.

   Mock, Terrance.   1986.   The Year of Restoration.   Palmetto 6 (3): 13.

   Lee, Jim.   1998.   The Yellow- Eyed Grass Family in Florida.   Palmetto 18 (2): 14-15, 29.

Members of the Xyris genus inhabit freshwater wetlands and wet pine flatwoods. Xyris is not grass. The 21 Florida species of  Xyris are presented along with a table of major distinguishing characteristics.

   Emmel, Thomas C..   1987.   The Zephyr Lily, Florida's own Easter Lily.   Palmetto 7 (2): 3.

Florida rain lilies occur across central and northern Florida and provide a touch of spring color. The author describes the three species of rain lilies, where they grow, and their ease of naturalizing in the garden.

   Yarlett, Lewis L.   1986.   Those Grass Names Where do They Come From?,.   Palmetto 6 (3): 7.

Keywords:  plant identification, taxonomy.

   Minno, Marc and Maria.   1999.   Thoughts on Environmental Education.   Palmetto 19 (1): 18, 22.

The two authors consider why a wealthy state and nation who say they want to preserve their natural environment  allow that natural world to deteriorate and decide that an early childhood education is the issing part of the puzzle.An early introduction to their native environment and native wildlife would engender an understanding of the connection between the environment and its wildlife, an appreciation for its beauty and establish a bond between the child and the natural world. Keywords: environmental education, early childhood introduction, 

   Osorio, Rufino.   1991.   Three Pine Rock Land Shrubs.   Palmetto 11 (3): 8-9.

Florida tetrazigia, quail berry, beauty berry.

   Lantz, Peggy S.   1988.   Three Projects with Native Plants.   Palmetto 8 (3): 6.

   Editor.   1981.   Tiger Creek - A Bit of Unspoiled Florida.   Palmetto 1 (1): 7.

The Palmetto editor in 1981 describes two connected conservation projects, suggesting that FNPS local ordinance committees could find useful ideas for future local conservation efforts. The first project of The Nature Conservancy--a public organization focusing on conserving valuable natural land--raised money by awarding a 1 acre "deed of gratitude" to those who donated $260 toward the purchase of the 2,890 acre Tiger Creek Preserve. The second related project involved the Tiger Creek Forest, a 1600 acre tract designated a wildlife sanctuary that abutted the Tiger Creek Preserve and was slotted for residential development of 5 + acre lots.  Purchasers of the 5+ acre plots were required to leave at least 40 percent of the plot in its natural condition, and the Nature Conservancy distributed educational material indicating ways this could be accomplished. Keywords: preserves, conservation areas, The Nature Conservancy, Tiger Creek Forest, residential wildlife sanctuary, Tiger Creek Preserve

   Partington, William M. Jr.   1981.   Tounge-in-cheek suggestions for Bigger and Better Sinkholes.   Palmetto 1 (2): 10.

   Pais, David.   1994.   Toward a Working Definition of “Florida Native Plant”.   Palmetto 14 (3): 17.

A discussion of what is does, and doesn't mean for a plant to be a Florida "native." The issues of Carribbean species occurring rarely but naturally in extreme southern Florida, cultivars of native Florida species that originate in North Carolina, and cultivars that originate in Florida are discussed.

   Cascio, Joseph.   1983.   Transplanting The Big Tree.   Palmetto 3 (3): 4-6.

Keywords:  gardening.

   Farnsworth, Steve.   1983.   Transplanting The Wild.   Palmetto 3 (2): 4.

 Steve Farnsworth's speech at the FNPS 3rd annual conference in 1983 concerning attempts to rescue native palnts from the wild is summarized although he finds it generally inadvisable because the survival rate of wild plants is low. He lists specific conditions which make efforts to rescue wild plants more appropriate . If those circumstances are present, he says before digging begins, a final decision should made based on criteria including acquiring permission from the owner or government agency and offers suggestions for a successful transplanting. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, transplanting, wild plants, 

   Editor.   1997.   Tribute to an Early Plant-Man, Henry Nehrling.   Palmetto 17 (3): 11.

Keywords:  People

   Schafer, Jennifer.   2017.   Tricks of the trade: Characteristics of Florida alicia  that facilitate its persistence in Florida habitats.   Palmetto 34 (1): 8-11.

Walk through any scrub or sandhill in Florida between May and September and you’ll notice the golden flowers atop tall swaying stems of Florida alicia (Chapmannia floridana). Learn about the specific characteristics that allow it to persist in the habitats where it occurs. Keywords: habitat, deep sands, fire, persistence in pastures

   Anderson-Messec, Lilly.   2020.   Tropical Milkweed: Harmful to Monarchs and Florida Ecosystems.   Palmetto 38 (4): 4-7.

Discusses milkweed and the importance of planting native milkweeds, not the tropical milkweek, for monarchs.  See favorite native alternatives: Asclepias tomentosaAsclepias perennis and Asclepias incarnata.

   Doukas, Annette.   1993.   Trumpet Creeper.  Important to hummingbirds..   Palmetto 13 (4): 24.

Campsis radicans

   Putz, Francis.   2009.   Trying to Eat Tread Softlies.   Palmetto 26 (4): 12-13.

Cnidosculus stimulosus, tread softly.  Concludes that this stinging species might not be appropriate for eating!  It is a delightful portrait of a native that is capable of defending itself.

   Moyroud, Richard.   2014.   Tupelo trees in Florida.   Palmetto 31 (1): 2.

Describes the tupelos (Nyssa) species native to Florida and some of their major characteristics.

   Moyroud, Richard.   2014.   Tupelo Trees in Florida.   Palmetto 31 (1): .

Introduces the trees in the tupelo, Nyssa, genus in Florida.

   Bartlett, Marcy R.   1988.   Turkey Creek Celebration.   Palmetto 8 (1): 13.

Summary of the 1988 Turkey Creek Celebration, Melbourne.

   Cummings, Paul and Sherry.   1994.   Twelve hundred (1200) Miles of Native Plants.   Palmetto 14 (2): 3-5.

   Artinni, Annette, Gayle Edwards, Rita Grat, JonAnne Trebatoski and Leslie Veber.   2002.   Two Dozen of Us Native Plant Folks Visited Costa Rica, FNPS Tales of Travel & Adventure.   Palmetto 21 (4): 12-14.

Remembering FNPS' first trip abroad.

   FNPS Conservation Committee.   2008.   Two FNPS Conservation Grants Awarded at 2008 Conference.   Palmetto 25 (3): 11.

Reports $2500 conservation grants: the first restore an Ormond Beach Maritime Hammock and the second to establish an Experimental Hammock Community in South Florida. Keywords: conservation grants, Ormond Beach, Maritime Hammock, restoration, conservation

   Starr, Wesley G.   1989.   Two Years later: My Native Plant Garden.   Palmetto 9 (1): 15.

Keywords:  gardening.

   Norris, Larry L..   1988.   Uniform Appearance: Yes. Uniform Terms? Not yet.   Palmetto 8 (2): 6-7.

Keywords: native landscaping, gardening, restoration, nurseries, nursery stock.

   Bissett, Nancy J.   1996.   Upland Restoration Challenge.   Palmetto 6 (2): 8-11.

   Strelkow, Peter F.   1984.   Using Design Principles with Native Plants.   Palmetto 4 (4): 9-10.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Bacchus, Sydney T.   1992.   Variations due to Age, Localized Conditions, and Successional Factors Within Species: The Creation and Restoration of Wetlands, Part 3.   Palmetto 12, (1): 14-16.

Keywords:  wetland creation, wetland restoration.

   Craig, Robert M. and Donald C. Smith.   1987.   Vegetation in Areas Stripminded for Phosphate.   Palmetto 7 (1): 5.

Common species for strip mined lands after 60 years of succession are reported. Live and water oaks were the most abundant trees. Shrubs included baccharis, wax myrtle, and lantana. Vines included catbriar and muscadine grape. Grasses included natalgrass, bushybeard bluestem, bermuda grass and smutgrass.

   Peroni, Patricia A. and Warren G. Abrahamson.   1985.   Vegetation Loss on the Southern Lake Wales Ridge.   Palmetto 5 (3): 6-7.

Article describes the mentions of wide-spread vegetation on the southern Highlands County portion of the Lake Wales Ridge--in informal and inadequate references--in literature, land survey notes and timber cruises, from as early as 1859 through the 1930s and1940s to the more formal, more accurate aerial photographs and soil-map records and later the USDA Soil Conservation maps dated concurrently with the publication of this article in 1985 that shows loss of vegetation. The continuing loss is documented in the more recent records continuing through to article publication. Efforts to save undisturbed land from development requires acquisition of natural lands. To achieve the goal of preserving portions of the Lake Wales Ridge, writers suggest systamatically identifying still undisturbed land with the intention of conservation. Keywords: Lake Wales Ridge, Scrub, Land Aquisition, 

   Mull, Patricia B.   2002.   Villa Maria, a Florida-Caribbean Jewel on Florida Bay.   Palmetto 21 (2): 17-19.

   Hall, David.   1986.   Virginia Creeper.   Palmetto 6 (1): 12.

Parthenocissus quinquifolia

   Trebatoski, JoAnne.   2000.   Virginia Girardin, an Interview.   Palmetto 20 (2): 11-12.

   Riefler, Steve.   1985.   Washington County, Floristically.   Palmetto 5 (3): 10.

Addressing the diversity, uniqueness, and understudied vegetation in the Florida Panhandle's Washington County', the author first describes the formation of the connected ravines around the Wausau, Vernon and New Hope area, and lists the dominant trees formng the canopy and usual understory species. The following paragraphs describe the changing topographical characteristics of the ravines and the area's flora as the writer travels from the east toward the west sections of the ravines with a focus on how changes in the area's environment and human intervention impacts the absence or presence of the species he lists in each area.  

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1991.   Water Lilies.   Palmetto 11, (2): 7.

Discusses American lotus, fragrant waterlily and yellow waterlily in terms of their use as food plants.  Please note that Florida has other native waterlilies, some rare, please do not harvest indescriminantly.

   Stibolt, Ginny.   2011.   Water Science & Plants.   Palmetto 28 (1): 12-14.

Keywords:  gardening.

   Workman, Dick and Marjorie Shropshire.   2012.   Weaving a Serenoa Field Basket.   Palmetto 29 (2): 4-7.

   Mast, Austin and Joel Timyan.   2018.   WeDigFLPlants.   Palmetto 34 (4): 8-7.

The WeDigFLPlants project seeks to engage everyone with an interest in Florida's flora. Find out how you can participate in this fun and educational effort to complete the Flora of Florida digitally.  This is a state-wide effort to Florida's flora over the past 200 years and determine where plant species are distributed today? It depends largely on dicoumenting the million-plus plant specimens collected in Florida during that time and now curated in the world's herbaria. Our ability to use the data associated with those Florida-collected specimens (including identification, date and collection location, and other information) is hindered by the fact that perhaps only half of the specimens are currently represented digitally and available for discovery at common go-to sites for finding the data online. Editor's note (2023):  this project has had results.  At the time of this writing, Florida's herbaria have perhaps the best documentation of  Florida plant specimens, and this project was instrumental in this.  At this time, most of the range data from this effort can be found by perusing the Florida Plant Atlas and the links to othe other major herbarium in Florida:   

   Cascio, Joe.   1988.   Wetlands.   Palmetto 8 (2): 8-9.

   Strong, Madeline.   1999.   What Floridians Don't Know about Florida.   Palmetto 19 (1): 5.

The author deliniates what Floridians don't know about Florida's deteriorating environment despite their expressed concern based on a needs assessment of Florida residents, natural land managers, environmental scientists and educators, and tourists conducted by Mark Duda and Associates for Florida's Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. Keywords: environmental knowledge, Florida environment, 

   Ward, Daniel B. and Robert T. Ing.   1992.   Where are the Florida Champions.   Palmetto 12 (1): 3-5.

   Wunderlin, Richard P..   2002.   Where's the Proof? The Importance of Herbarium Specimens.   Palmetto 21 (2): 6.

   Stein, Sara.   1999.   Whose Ladybug is it?.   Palmetto 19 (3): 9-14.

Comparing two ladybug species:  one native and one a non-native pest. Keywords: invasive species, insects.

   Minno, Maria.   1992.   Why Children Should Study Nature.   Palmetto 12 (3): 3-5.

Lists reasons for nature study in schools including encouraging interest in science, increasing ecological literacy, and fun. A potential role for FNPS in the classroom is presented.

   Rogers, George.   2014.   Why do figs taste crunchy?.   Palmetto 31 (2): 2, 11.

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1990.   Wild Beverages.   Palmetto 10 (2): 8-9.

   Lantz, Peggy S.   1989.   Wild Food Specialist.   Palmetto 9 (1): 10.

Dick Duerling.

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1992.   Wild Onions and Garlic.   Palmetto 12 (2): 10-11.

   Hall, David.   1985.   Wild Poinsettia.   Palmetto 5 (1): 16.

Poinsettia heterophylla and Poinsettia cyathophora.

   Huegel, Craig.   1994.   Wildlife Garden and Plant Selection.   Palmetto 14 (4): 10.

Keywords:  Wildlife, gardening

   Graham, Bunnie.   1981.   William Bartram, Florida Native Plant Enthusiast.   Palmetto 1 (3): 7.

Includes well known (historical) botanists, important conservationists, and FNPS people

   Putz, Francis E.   2011.   Would You Prefer Eating Red Coontie or White?.   Palmetto 28 (2): 13-15.

Puts coontie on the diet --  either Zamia or Smilax.   This author will enjoy the first in his landscape and the second in nature.   Neither will be on his table.  If starving, pick Smilax.

   Craig, Robert.   1987.   Xeriscape.   Palmetto 7 (4): 11.

Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening.

   Putz, Francis.   2014.   Yaupon Redeemed.   Palmetto 31 (3): 9-11.

Talks about the ethnic uses of yaupon holly including its use as tea (yes, it is tasty) and its cultural uses by American Indians.

   Woodson, Constance Fenimore.   1983.   Yellow Jessamine.   Palmetto 3 (1): 1.

Gelesium sempervirens

   Christman, Steven.   1988.   Yellow Scrub Balm.   Palmetto 8 (4): 3.

Dicerandra christmanii

   Deuerling, Dick and Peggy Lantz.   1989.   You Don't Have To Be a Squirrel to Enjoy the Acorns! The Oaks.   Palmetto 9 (4): 8.

   Chellman, Pat.   1993.   You Won't Be Disappointed With Coral Honeysuckle.   Palmetto 13 (2): 3.

Lonicera sempervirens. Keywords:  native landscaping, gardening, butterflies, hummingbirds..

   Hannahs, Eve A.   1986.   Zebra Longwing.   Palmetto 6 (1): 4.

The article describes each stage of the butterfly's life: egg, larvae, and adult and its unique markings, identifies its larval host plant, and the adult butterflys' defense mechanisms against predators for its eggs and itself during the adult stage. The author also identifies its heliconiidae Florida relatives. Keywords:  butterflies, butterfly larval foods butterfly markings, defense mechanisms.


The Palmetto

The Palmetto is the official magazine of the Florida Native Plant Society. It is provided to members as a thank you for supporting the Society and its mission.