Assessing genetic diversity of the highly endangered native semaphore cactus Consolea corallicola and its potential for breeding programs
Anthony Rossi and Dale Casamatta (University of North Florida, Department of Biology, 2018)
FNPS annually provides grants for research leading to the conservation of Florida native plants. These grants are funded through donations from our Endowment Fund, from our general membership fees, and from targetted donations from individuals and chapters.
The list below the many projects that we have funded.
Anthony Rossi and Dale Casamatta (University of North Florida, Department of Biology, 2018)
Arian Farid and Alan Franck (University of South Florida, CMMB, Herbarium, 2018)
Brigette Williams (Saint Louis University, 2018)
Milton H. Diaz (University of Florida, Department of Biology, 2018)
Andre Naranjo (Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, 2017)
Iwan E. Molgo (University of Florida, Department of Biology, 2017)
Lydia M. Cuni (Florida International University, Department of Earth and Environment, 2017)
Brittany Harris (Florida International University, 2016)
Pine rockland in the Lower Florida Keys supports a large diversity of flowering plants, including many endemic and rare species. Use of broad spectrum insecticides for seasonal mosquito abatement throughout fragmented pine rockland poses unclear challenges for managing these imperiled flowering plants and their pollinators. We analyzed effects of mosquito spray on pollinators and indirect effects to plant reproduction in Linum arenicola, an endangered pine rockland endemic, and Pentalinon luteum, a self-incompatible pine rockland obligate. In 2015, we simultaneously observed pollinator frequency and fruit set to each plant species following insecticide applications within unsprayed areas and within frequently treated areas for three separate spray missions. We took measurements again in 2016 before the mosquito spray season to account for natural variation in pollinators between different study sites. After each mosquito spray event, flower visits to both plant species were significantly lower; this also coincided with a decrease in fruit set, although only significant for the self-incompatible species. Mosquito insecticides frequently sprayed near conservation lands pose risks to invertebrate pollinators and flowering plants that require pollinators for reproduction. Although the self-pollinating species received fewer flower visits after mosquito spray, selfing allows pollination to occur when flower visits are low.
Jerald Pinson (University of Florida, Department of Biology, 2016)
Ferns and lycophytes are the only lineages of plants in which both stages of the life-cycle, the sporophyte (diploid) and gametophyte (haploid), are independent and free-living. In approximately 10% of ferns, the gametophytes can also be long-lived, many of which have a spatial separation of the two generations, in which the gametophytes never produce sporophytes in at least part of their range. There are several such species in eastern North America that likely haven’t produced a viable sporophyte for thousands of years and yet still maintain large ranges throughout several states. It is currently unknown what inhibits the production of sporophytes in fern species that show a spatial separation of generations, but there is evidence to suggest that fine scale micro-climatic conditions may be driving this pattern in several species. In southern Florida, Lomariopsis kunzeana is known to grow as gametophytes in the moist crevices of solution holes, some of which support sporophytes and some of which do not, making it an ideal system in which to study the effects of environmental conditions on sporophyte production. We measured both light and temperature in these sinkholes in an attempt to determine what environmental factors preclude the production of sporophytes in ferns.
Lauren Trotta (University of Florida, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, 2016)
Community phylogenetic methods can be used to explore shared evolutionary history between co-existing species. Closely related species are thought to possess similar traits, while distantly related species may have evolved to persist in different niches allowing for coexistence. In the face of global anthropogenic change, we are interested in predicting whether species become pervasive invaders or increasingly rare based on patterns of relatedness. Florida’s pine rockland habitat is a model natural system for understanding dispersion of threatened, endangered, and invasive species across habitat fragments. Pine Rockland habitat is a critically imperiled savannah-like forest perched at the confluence of North American and Caribbean species ranges. This habitat hosts a unique community of endemic as well as threatened and endangered plant taxa. However, rapid urban and agricultural development has lead to habitat loss, fragmentation, fire suppression, and increased incidence of invasive species. We use a species level pine rockland community phylogeny in combination with species presence and abundance data to evaluate the relatedness of threatened, endangered, and invasive species across pine rockland fragments.
Barbara Whitlock (University of Miami, Department of Biology, 2015)
Natali Miller (Florida State University, Department of Biology, 2015)
Sebastian Palmas-Perez (University of Florida, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, 2015)
Palmas-Perez, S. 2016. Can X-ray scans precisely estimate the age and growth rates of trees in South Florida? The Palmetto 36(4): 4-5, 15.
Jennifer Schafer (, 2014)
Schafer, J. 2017. Tricks of the trade: Characteristics of Florida Alicia that facilitates its persistence in Florida habitats. The Palmetto 34(1): 8-11.
John Schenk (Tulane University, Department of Biology, 2014)
Schenk, J.J., S. Koptur, H. Wilson, M. Noble, and E. Derryberry. 2018. Allopatric speciation drives diversification of ecological specialists on sandhills. International Journal of Plant Science 179(4): 329-339.
Wyatt Sharber (University of Miami, Department of Biology, 2014)
Jason A. Smith (University of Florida, School of Forest Resources & Conservation, 2013)
Matthew Richardson (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, 2013)
Richarson, M.L. and C.L. Peterson. 2018. Toward understanding Lakela's and Savannas Balm, Dicerandra immaculata. The Palmetto 34(3): 4-7, 11.
Ryan Moraski (University of Florida, Gainesville and Florida Museum of Natural History, 2013)
Chris Buddenhagen (Department of Biology, Florida State University, 2012)
Emily Warschefsky (Department of Biology, Florida International University, 2012)
Kristen Sauby (Department of Biology, University of Florida, 2012)
Glenn Bupp (Florida Institute of Technology, 2011)
Mizuki Takahashi (Bucknell University, 2011)
Takahashi, M.K., T. Kubota, L.M. Horner, N.A. Keller, and W.G. Abrahamson. 2012. The spatial signature of biotic interactions of a clonal and non-clonal palmetto in a subtropical plant community. Ecosphere 3(7):68; doi:10.1890/ES12-00101.1
Tonya Fotinos (Florida International University, 2011)
Adam C. Payton (University of Florida-Department of Biology, 2010)
Christopher G. Oakley (Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, 2010)
Oakley, C.G. and A.A. Winn. 2012. Effects of population size and isolation on heterosis, mean fitness, and inbreeding depression in a perennial plant. New Phytologist 196:261-270.
Oakley, C.G. 2015. The influence of natural variation in population size on ecological and quantitative genetics of the endangered endemic plant Hypericum cumulicola. International Journal of Plant Sciences 176:11-19.
Alice A. Winn (Florida State University - Department of Biological Science, 2009)
The objective was to collect data on survival and preproduction from three introduced and three natural populations of C. glabra to construct and analyze demographic models. The primary objective was to use these models to determine which life cycle stages and demographic processes contribute most to population success or demise. The outcome of the research was reported to both applied conservation and basic science audiences in the form of an oral presentation (2010 FNPS meetings in Tallahassee, and Annual Meeting of Ecological Society of America) and papers published in professional journals
Herbert Kesler and Jennifer Trusty (Folius Consulting, 2009)
The objectives of this project were:
This project directly addressed actions outlined in the USFWS Recovery Plan of this species. It was designed to measure the decline or growth of selected populations and their response to fire aiding in the conservation of this species.
James M. Heaney (University of Florida and Florida Museum of Natural History – Department of Biology, 2009)
This project was a phylogenetic study of Nolina, based on molecular and anatomical evidence from various localities in Florida. Additional objectives were to quantify patterns of genetic diversity in and among populations and to compare these measures among congeneric species.
Nicholas Buckley (University of Tennessee – Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 2009)
Investigated the mating system and pollination biology of the early diverging angiosperm Illicium parviflorum, a close relative to I. floridanum. Prior to this research, there was no pollination biology known on this species. Illicium parviflorum is endemic to Florida and Georgia; however, the populations in Georgia are thought to have gone extinct (NatureServe 2009). Understanding the mating system biology is essential in determining future conservation strategies. This information will be used in expanding the current knowledge of early diverging angiosperm mating systems.
Beyte Barrios Roque (Florida International University, 2008)
Barrios, B., G. Arellano, and S. Koptur. 2011. The effects of fire and fragmentation on the occurrence and flowering of a rare perennial plant. Plant Ecology 212:1057-1067.
Barrios, B. and S. Koptur. 2011. Floral biology and breeding system of Angadenia berteroi (Apocynaceae): Why do flowers of the pineland golden trumpet produce few fruits? International Journal of Plant Science 172:378-385.
Barrios, B., S.R. Pena, A. Salas, and S. Koptur. 2016. Butterflies visit more frequently but bees are better pollinators: The importance of mouthpart diemnsions in effective pollen removal and deposition. AoB Plants 8:plw001; doi:10.1093/aobpla/plw001.
Barrios Roque, B., S. Koptur, and J.P. Sah. 2016. The effect of habitat fragmentation on the reproduction and abundance of Angadenia berteroi. Journal of Plant Ecology: doi:10.1093/jpe/rtw024.
Elizabeth L. Stephens (University of Central Florida, 2008)
Stephens, E.L., L. Castro-Morales, and P.F. Quintana-Ascencio. 2012. Post-dispersal seed predation, germination, and seedling survival of five rare Florida scrub species in intact and degraded habitats. American Midland Naturalist 167:223-239.
Stephens, E.L., M.R. Tye, and P.F. Quintana-Ascencio. 2014. Habitat and microsite influence demography of two herbs in intact and degraded scrub. Population Ecology 56:447-461.
Tania Wyss (University of Miami, 2008)
Alan Franck (University of South Florida, 2007)
Franck, A.R. 2012. Synopsis of Harrisia including a newly described species, several typifications, new synonyms, and a key to species. Haseltonia 18:95-104.
Franck, A.R., B.J. Cochrane, and J.R. Garey. 2012. Low-copy nuclear primers and YCF1 primers in Cactaceae. American Journal of Botany 99: e405-e405.
Franck, A.R., B.J. Cochrane, and J.R. Garey. 2013. Phylogeny, biogeography, and infrageneric classification of Harrisia (Cactaceae). Systematic Botany 38:210-223.
Franck, A.R., B.J. Cochrane, and J.R. Garey. 2013. Relationships and dispersal of hte Caribbean species of Harrisia (sect. Harrisia; Cactaceae) using AFLPs and seven DNA regions. Taxon 62:486-497.
Jennifer Schafer (University of Florida, 2007)
Schafer, J.L. and M.C. Mack. 2010. Short-term effects of fire on soil and plant nutrients in palmetto flatwoods. Plant and Soil 334:433-447.
Schafer, J.L. and M.C. Mack. 2013. Efects of time-since-fire on soil nutrient dynamics in Florida scubby flatwoods. Florida Scientist 76:417-435.
Schafer, J.L. and M.C. Mack. 2014. Foliar nutrient concentrations and ratios of scrubby flatwoods species change with time after fire. Castanea 79:237-245.
Schafer, J.L. and M.C. Mack. 2018. Nutrient limitation of plant productivity in scrubby flatwoods: does fire shift nitrogen versus phosphorus limitations. Plant Ecology (doi.org/10.1007/s11258-018-0859-6).
John Pascarella with Joyce Maschinski (Valdosta State University (John Pascarella) and Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden (Joyce Maschinski), 2007)
Pascarella, J.B., J. Maschinski, and S.J. Wright. 2011. Soil seedbanks and long-term seed survival in the endangered Florida beach clustervine (Jacquemontia reclinata House [Convolvulaceae]). Native Plants Journal 12(3):233-240.
Charlotte Germain-Aubrey (University of Florida - Department of Botany, 2006)
Germain-Aubrey, C.C., P.S. Soltis, D.E. Soltis, and M.A. Gitzendanner. 2011. Microsatellite marker development for the federally listed Prunus geniculata (Roasaceae). American Journal of Botany 98(3): e58-e60.
Gitzendanner, M.A., C.W. Weekley, C.C. Germain-Aubrey, D.E. Soltis, and P.S. Soltis. 2012. Micosatellite evidence for high clonality and limited genetic diversity in Ziziphus celeta (Rhamnaceae), an endangered, self-incompatible shrub endemic to the Lake Wales Ridge, Florida, USA. Conservation Genetics 13:223-234.
Germain-Aubrey, C.C., P.S. Soltis, K.M. Neubig, T. Thurston, D.E. Soltis, and M.A. Gitzendanner. 2014. Using comparative biogeography to retrace the origins of an ecosystem: The case of four plants endemic to the Central Florida Scrub. International Journal of Plant Sciences 175:418-431.
Diana Hurlbut (Central Michigan University - Biology Department, 2006)
The FNPS grant was restricted to that portion of her research that relates to Florida.
Shiels, D.R., D.L. Hurlbut, S.K. Lichtenwald, and A.K. Monofils. 2014. Monophyly and phylogeny of Schoenoplectus and Schoenoplectiella (Cyperaceae): Evidence from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Systematic Botany 39:132-144.
John Geiger (Florida International University - Department of Biology, 2006)
Geiger, J.H., A.W. Meerow, C. Lewis, R. Oviedos, and J. Francisco-Ortega. 2014. Genetic diversity and conservation of Ipomoea microdactyla (Convolvulaceae): an endemic vine from the Bahamas, Cuba, and southeastern Florida. Plant Species Biology 29:2-15.
Lisa McCauley (University of Central Florida - Department of Biology, 2006)
The following publication was partially funded by this Endowment Research Grant:
Christine Edwards, Douglas Soltis, and Pamela Soltis (University of Florida, 2005)
The intent was to use various DNA sequencing techniques to investigate patterns of genetic diversity within and among populations of each species of Conradina, Clinopodium, Piloblephis, and Stachydeoma and to apply the resulting information to understanding the phylogeny and geographical patterns of genetic variation in these dry site mints.
Edwards, C.E., D.E. Soltis, and P.S. Soltis. 2006. Molecular phylogeny of Conradina and other scrub mints (Lamiaceae) from the Southeastern USA: Evidence for hybridization in a Pleistocene Refugia? Systematic Botany 31:193-2017.
Edwards, C.E., D.E. Soltis, and P.S. Soltis. 2008. Using patterns of genetic structure based on microsatellite loci to test hypotheses of current hybridization, ancient hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting in Conradina (Lamiaceae). Molecular Ecology 17:5157-5174.
Edwards, C.E., D. Lefkowitz, D.E. Soltis, and P.S. Soltis. 2008. Phylogeny of Conradina and related Southeastern scrub mints (Lamiaceae) based on GapC gene sequences. International Journal of Plant Sciences 169:579-594.
Elizabeth Boughton (University of Central Florida - Department of Biology, 2005)
This project looked at the roles of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon) and soft rush (Juncus effusus) in degraded maidencane marshes. In specific, she will be looking at the role soft rush may play as a nurse plant in recovering maidencane marshes. The study was conducted in wetlands at the MacArthur Agro-ecology Research Center.
Boughton, E.A., P.F. Quintana-Ascencio, and P.J. Bolen. 2011. Refuge effects of Juncus effusus in a grazed, subtropical wetland plant community. Plant Ecology 212:451-460.
John Kunzer, Jr. (University of South Florida, 2005)
This was a detailed floristic inventory of over 6000 acres of publicly owned lands.
Katherine R. Goodrich (University of South Carolina, 2005)
The study investigated several the phylogeny and patterns in floral morphology in the genus Asimina, specifically seeking answers to the following questions:
Goodrich, K.R. and R.A. Raguso. 2009. The olfactory component of floral display in Asimina and Deeringothamnus. New Phytologist 183:457-469.
Melinda Donnelly (Biology Department, University of Central Florida) (, 2005)
The purpose of this study was to determine if and how Schinus terebinthifolius out-competes or inhibits growth of the red, black and white mangroves. In Mosquito Lagoon, this was accomplished by determining the ability of Schinus terebinthifolius to:
By better understanding the invasibility and impact of Schinus terebinthifolius on mangroves, coastal resource managers will be able to develop the most effective management strategies to prevent this exotic from altering the structure and productivity of the mangrove ecosystem.
Donnelly, M.J. and L.J. Walters. 2008. Water and boating activity as dispersal vectors for Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper) seeds in freshwater and estuarine habitats. Estuaries and Coasts 31:960-968.
Brian J. Sidoti (Florida International University - Department of Biological Sciences, 2004)
The purpose of this project was to gain greater insight into the speciation and radiation of species within the Tillandsia fasciculata (Bromeliaceae) complex that occurs in Florida and Cuba . Specifically, anatomical, morphological, and molecular studies were used to examine the T. fasciculata complex in order to support taxonomic decisions and species boundaries. This baseline data was to be used to construct and solidify conservation measures.
Eliane Norman and Sandra Carnival (Stetson University (Eliane Norman) and Tosohatchee State Preserve (Sandra Carnival), 2004)
This study evaluated the growth patterns of hand ferns on the Tosohatchee State Preserve. Plants were selected randomly from different sites. Each plant as well as each leaf was tagged. The following parameters were measured or observed 4 times a year: length of stipe; length and width of blade; # of lobes; # of fertile spikes; size of fertile spike and stage of maturation; % of damaged leaves. The data obtained were used to assess of the longevity of the Hand Fern and to relate phenological patterns in leaf growth and spike production and maturation to sesonal variation at the Tosohatchee State Preserve.
Herbert 'Tug' Kesler (Auburn University - Dept. Biological Sciences, 2004)
Pinguicula ionantha R. K. Godfrey (Lentibulariaceae) is a recently described species endemic to a 25-mile radius in the panhandle of Florida . Due to its shrinking population size, P. ionantha was listed as threatened by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service on July 12, 1993 and is currently listed as Florida State endangered. This study conducted field and laboratory experiments to gain information needed to conserve federally threatened P. ionantha populations in the panhandle of Florida . The results of both types of research were integrated to create a better understanding of 1) the current status of all 62 known populations, 2) how the survival and fecundity of wild P. ionantha populations are directly effected by prescribed fire, and 3) whether a soil seed bank exists for this species. The goal of the project was to develop recommendations for conservation and management practices that will ensure the long-term survival of federally threatened and Florida endangered, Pinguicula ionantha populations.
Kesler, H.C., J.L. Trusty, S.M. Hermann, and C. Guyer. 2008. Demographic responses of Pinguicula ionantha to prescribed fire: A regression design LTRE approach. Oecologia 156:545-557.
Tania Kim (University of Florida - Department of Zoology, 2004)
The direct effects of prescribed fire on plant communities have been extensively studied yet little is known about the effects of fire on other trophic levels and trophic interactions. Interspecific interactions, such as herbivory and predation, play important roles in maintaining ecosystem function, however very little is known about their roles in post-fire succession. Predators may indirectly benefit plant communities by alleviating intense herbivory pressures typically associated with post-fire habitats. If predator, top-down controls are strongly felt by plant communities, then herbivory and predation play extremely important roles in post-fire succession. The goal of this research project was to determine whether insect herbivores and vertebrate predators play significant roles in influencing plant growth and reproduction following fire in longleaf pine sandhills. This was accomplished by setting up insect herbivore and vertebrate predator exclosures in longleaf pine sandhill habitats throughout two reserves in north-central Florida .
Kim, T.N. and R.D. Holt. 2012. The direct and indirect effects of fire on the assembly of insect herbivore communities: Examples from the Florida scrub habitat. Oecologia 168:997-1012.
Ashley B. Morris withPamela S. Soltis (University of Florida (Morris) and Florida Museum of Natural History (Soltis), 2003)
The goal of this study was to assess levels of genetic diversity in natural populations of Florida anise, I. parviflorum, as well as that of horticultural stocks.
This rare species is quite popular in the horticultural trade, and is commonly sold as far north as North Carolina and as far west as Arkansas. It is common practice in plant nurseries to increase their inventories by propagating cuttings, resulting in a genetically homogeneous stock. In addition, many nurseries obtain their original cuttings from the same source, resulting in homogeneity among nurseries. Such practices may have serious consequences for natural populations exhibiting self-incompatibility.
Newell, D.L. and A.B. Morris. 2010. Clonal structure of wild populations and origins of horticultural stocks of Illicium parviflorum (Illiciaceae). American Journal of Botany 97:1574-1578.
Cindy Bennington (Stetson University, 2003)
To test ideas related to the evolution of andromonoecy in passionflower, the investigator proposed an experiment toexamine the response of gender expression to resource limitation (imposed through herbivory). Three main questions were addressed:
Philip A. Gonsiska (Florida International University, 2003)
South Florida is subject to invasion by exotic species, such as Australian pine (Casuarina spp.), Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius), and melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia). These species have the capacity to invade habitats, such as mangrove and buttonwood communities where C. berteroniana is found. Since Australian pine, Brazilian pepper, and melaleuca have the capacity to exclude native vegetation in the habitats they invade, if they are less suitable epiphyte hosts than native tree species, the possibility exists for the decimation of Florida's epiphyte communities. This could result in the extirpation of endangered epiphytes, such as Catopsis berteroniana.
The purpose of the observational portion of this project was to determine the fate of C. berteroniana seedlings during their first year of life on their naturally occurring native host species. The experimental portion of this study determined the effects of host species on seedling recruitment and thereby demonstrated potential effects of invasive woody species on bromeliad communities in south Florida.
Amethyst Merchant (University of Florida - Department of Botany, 2002)
Objective: to determine how species of Dicerandra compensate for resource limitations within native habitats by comparing variation in functional morphology and ecophysiology.
Ashley Morris (University of Florida - Department of Botany, 2002)
Objective: to assess levels of genetic variation within and among populations of Illicium parviflorum, a state-endangered shrub that is endemic to six counties in central Florida (Lake, Marion, Orange, Polk, Seminole, and Volusia).
Newell, D.L. and A.B. Morris. 2010. Clonal structure of wild populations and origins of horticultural stocks of Illicium parviflorum (Illiciaceae). American Journal of Botany 97:1574-1578.
John Geiger (Florida International University, 2002)
Objective: to study the pollination and breeing system of this rare vine and to determine the effects of habitat fragmentation on reporductive success.
Geiger, J.H., A.W. Meerow, C. Lewis, R. Oviedos, and J. Francisco-Ortega. 2014. Genetic diversity and conservation of Ipomoea microdactyla (Convolvulaceae): An endemic vine from the Bahamas, Cuba, and southeastern Florida. Plant Species Biology 29:2-15.
Elena Pinto-Torres (Department of Biological Sciences Florida International University, 2001)
Pinto-Torres, E. and S. Koptur. 2009. Hanging by a coastal strand: Breeding system of a federally endangered morning-glory of the south-eastern Florida coast, Jacquemontia reclinata. Annals of Botany 104:1301-1311.
Gantt Boswell (Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Tulane University, 2001)
Hannah Thornton (Department of Biological Sciences Florida International University, 2001)
Douglas G. Scofield (Department of Biology University of Miami, 2000)
Hector E. Perez (Department of Environmental Horticulture University of Florida, 2000)
Bijan, D. and H.E. Perez. 2005. Preliminary study shows germination of Caribbean applecactus (Harrisia fragrans) improved with acid scarification and gibberellic acid. Native Plants Journal 6(1):91-97.
Jenny Schafer (Archbold Biological Station, 2000)
Paronychia chartacea (Papery whitlow-wort) is a state endangered and federally-threatened plant endemic to Florida.Disturbed firelanes provide an open, unstable, and less fire-dependent habitat for many scrub endemics. Some species show different demographic trends between populations in natural scrub habitats and firelanes.
The goals of the project were:
Schafer, J.L., L.L. Sullivan, C.W. Weekley, and E.S. Menges. 2013. Effect of habitat and time-since-fire on recruitment, survival, and reproduction of Paronychia chartaceae ssp. chartaceae, a short-lived Florida scrub endemic herb. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 140:181-195.
Laurie L. Walker (Department of Biology, University of South Florida, 2000)
Sharon Ewe (Department of Biology University of Miami, 2000)
Ewe, S.M.L. and L. da S.L. Sternberg. 2002. Seasonal water-use by the invasive exotic, Schinus terebinthifolius, in native and disturbed communities. Oecologia 133:441-448.
Ewe, S.M.L. and L. da S.L. Sternberg. 2003. Seasonal gas exchange characteristics of Schinus terebinthifolius in a native and disturbed upland community in Everglades National Park, Florida. Forest Ecology and Management 179:27-36.
Chris Lockhart (Habitat Specialists, Inc., 1999)
Elizabeth R. Mayo (, 1999)
Hong Liu (Department of Biological Sciences Florida International University, 1999)
Liu, H. and S. Koptur. 2003. Breeding system and pollination of a narrowly endemic herb of the Lower Florida Keys: Impacts of urban-wildland interface. American Journal of Botany 90:1180-1187.
Liu, H, and E.S. Menges. 2005. Winter fires promote greater vital rates in the Florida Keys than summer fires. Ecology 86:1483-1495.
Liu, H., E.S. Menges, and P.F. Quintana-Ascencio. 2005. Population viability analyses of Chamaecrista keyensis: Effects of fire season and frequency. Ecological Applications 15:210-221.
Liu, H., E.S. Menges, J.R. Snyder, S. Koptur, and M.S. Ross. 2005. Effects of fire intensity on vital rates of an endemic herb in the Florida Keys, USA. Natural Areas Journal 25:71-76.
John Hays (Herbarium, Northeast Louisiana University Monroe, LA, 1999)
Laurie Walker Markham (Department of Biology University of South Florida Tampa, 1999)
Annemarie Jameson (Department of Biology University of Miami, 1998)
William F. Gray (Breedlove Dennis & Associates, Inc., 1998)