Avicennia germinans

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Black Mangrove


Plant Specifics

Size:15 to 40 (60) ft tall by 10 to 30 ft wide
Life Span:Long-lived perennial
Flower Color:White
Fruit Color:Green
Phenology:Evergreen. Sends up pheumatiphores. Seeds germinate on the tree.
Noted for:Hurricane wind resistance


Recommended Uses:Valued as a shoreline stabilization plant. Can also be used for screening.
Propagation:Seed, but more often by propagule, which form while still attached to the mother plant.
Availability:Native nurseries, Seed
Light: Full Sun
Moisture Tolerance:
always floodedextremely dry
 (Stays Wet ----- to ----- Stays Wet)
Moisture Tolerance: Stays Wet ----- to ----- Stays Wet
Salt Water Flooding Tolerance:Tolerant of frequent or regular inundation (usually areas with tidal inundation)
Salt Spray/ Salty Soil Tolerance:High. Can tolerate significant and ongoing amounts of salty wind and salt spray without injury.
Soil or other substrate:Marine alluvium, Sand
Soil pH:



Provides good cover for birds and other wildlife. 


Larval host for mangrove buckeye (Junonia evarete) butterfly. Nectar plant for a variety of pollinators including the great southern white (Ascia monuste) butterfly.  Nectar used by butterflies.  Pollinated by bees, wasps, and flies. (Landry, 2013).

Native Habitats:Coastal mangrove wetlands, usually somewhat upland of the red mangrove(Rhizophora mangle) when found together.

Distribution and Planting Zones

Natural Range in Florida
USDA Zones

Suitable to grow in:
10A 10B 11 9A 9B 

USDA zones are based on minimum winter temperatures


General Comments:

The common name black mangrove is a reference to the color of the trunk and heartwood. The plant excretes salt from its leaves, an adaptation to a saline environment. Pneumataphores rise above the substrate and make this an important plant for coastline erosion prevention. This is a protected plant and you may not trim back or gather propagules without permission.