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|Size:||40-60 ft tall by 15-25 ft wide|
|Life Span:||Long-lived perennial|
|Phenology:||Evergreen. Blooms in spring. Fruits ripen in fall and persist into winter.|
|Noted for:||Showy fruits, Interesting foliage, Hurricane wind resistance|
|Recommended Uses:||Specimen tree. Screen.|
|Considerations:||Sharp spines (teeth) on leaves.|
|Propagation:||Softwood cuttings started in spring. Seeds of most holly species require 2-3 years of dormancy before they will germinate.|
|Availability:||Native nurseries, FNPS plant sales, Quality nurseries, Seed|
|Light:||Part Shade, Shade|
always floodedextremely dry
|(Usually moist, occasional inundation ----- to ----- Somewhat long very dry periods)|
|Moisture Tolerance:||Usually moist, occasional inundation ----- to ----- Somewhat long very dry periods|
|Salt Water Flooding Tolerance:||Not salt tolerant of inundation by salty or brackish water.|
|Salt Spray/ Salty Soil Tolerance:||Low/no tolerance of salty wind or direct salt spray|
|Soil or other substrate:||Loam, Sand|
|Soil pH:||Acidic to neutral|
Fruits are eaten by birds.
Bees pollinate flowers.
Upland woods, second bottom but will not tolerate long flooding. Often an understory plant.
Documented in Lee County in a site likely to be natural. Documented in Palm Beach County in an urbanizing area where likely to be a garden escape.
Distribution and Planting Zones
Natural Range in Florida
Suitable to grow in:
10A 8A 8B 9A 9B
USDA zones are based on minimum winter temperatures
|Ethnobotany:||The wood is pale, tough, close-grained, takes a good polish, and is used for handles, engraving blocks, and cabinet work. It can also be dyed and used as a substitute for ebony. Fruits are poisonous to humans.|
Both male and female plants required for pollination and seed set.