Tilia americana

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Basswood, American Linden, Bee Tree


Also known as Tilia caroliniana, Tilia heterophylla

Plant Specifics

Size:60-80 ft tall by 40-60 ft wide
Life Span:Long-lived perennial
Flower Color:White,yellow,green
Fruit Color:Brown
Phenology:Deciduous. Blooms in spring. Fruit ripens in fall.
Noted for:Fall color, Interesting foliage


Recommended Uses:Shade tree for mid-moisture sites.
Considerations:Dense shade produced by this tree will limit what can be grown under it.
Propagation:Seed. Can also be managed as a coppice plant.
Availability:Native nurseries, FNPS plant sales, Seed
Light: Part Shade,  Shade
Moisture Tolerance:
always floodedextremely dry
 (Usually moist, occasional inundation ----- to ----- Not wet but not extremely dry)
Moisture Tolerance: Usually moist, occasional inundation ----- to ----- Not wet but not extremely dry
Salt Water Flooding Tolerance:Not salt tolerant of inundation by salty or brackish water.
Salt Spray/ Salty Soil Tolerance:Low/no tolerance of salty wind or direct salt spray
Soil or other substrate:Clay, Loam, Sand
Soil pH:Acidic to circum-neutral



Seeds eaten by a variety of small mammals, especially rodents. 


  • Flowers fragrant and attractive to insects, especially bees.
  • Larval host for red spotted purple butterfly.

Native Habitats:Mesic forests.

Distribution and Planting Zones

Natural Range in Florida
USDA Zones

Suitable to grow in:
8A 8B 9A 9B 

USDA zones are based on minimum winter temperatures


Ethnobotany:Has been used for lumber/furniture wood. Known as a good honey plant.
General Comments:Tilia americana var. caroliniana and T. americana var. heterophylla both occur in Florida. Their cultural requirements and appearance are similar.